Lorong Halus

Singapore Infopedia


Lorong Halus is an area located in the northeastern part of Singapore that surrounds a road of the same name.1 The road has been in existence since the 1930s and was extended in the 1980s and ’90s to connect with the Tampines Expressway (TPE) and Pasir Ris Coast Industrial Park, respectively.2 Over the years, the area has been used for various purposes including a sewage ground, an agricultural area for coconut and rubber plantations as well as animal farms, a rubbish dump, and a site for charcoal traders.3 Today, the area is mainly associated with Lorong Halus Wetland, which is situated on the eastern bank of Serangoon River.4

Early history
The Malay terms lorong and halus translate to “alley” or “narrow street” and “fine in texture, delicate, miniature”, respectively.5

Lorong Halus was featured in a 1934 government survey map as a straight road heading northeast.6 By 1975, it had converged with Lorong Baling and Tampines Road. The road bisected Jalan Teban, where Yuh Cheng School, a Chinese-medium, government-aided school, used to be located until 1978 when it closed down.7 Lorong Baling and Jalan Teban have since been expunged.8

In 1937, the municipality invited tenders for the construction of the Municipal Sludge Disposal Works, which was located along a tributary of the Serangoon River known as Sungei Blukar and where Lorong Halus is today.9 This sewage ground facility was reflected in government maps dating from 1953 to 1985. In the vicinity of the facility were villages such as Kampong Sungei Blukar and Kampong Beremban as well as the Bukit Sembawang residential estate.10

In 1970, Lorong Halus was predominantly an agricultural area dotted with rural villages, ponds as well as coconut and rubber plantations.11

The ponds reared seafood such as prawns in the 1970s, but by the ’80s, three fisheries in the area were breeding tropical fishes like the ramirezi and Japanese koi.12 By the mid-’90s, there were 11 floating farms located off the Pasir Ris coastline near Lorong Halus. These farms reared fish such as groupers, seabasses and snappers as well as crabs and lobsters.13 During the ’90s, the Primary Production Department called for tenders for ornamental-fish and aquatic-plant farms to be established at Pasir Ris Farmway and Pasir Ris Coast Industrial Park. These sites were located adjacent to Lorong Halus.14 The Lorong Halus jetty and waste collection centre, built exclusively for the fish farmers’ usage, opened in 2014.15

In the 1950s, cow and goat farms began sprouting up at Lorong Halus. From the mid-’80s onwards, these farms had to downsize or move out of the area to allow for the widening of Tampines Road.16

Pet farms began moving into Lorong Halus in the mid-1990s. Ericsson Pet Farm and Le Doggy Specialist, both sited at Pasir Ris Farmway 2, sold dogs and offered boarding canals, catteries plus grooming services.17 In 1995, local actress Zoe Tay opened a pet shop called Zoe’s Pet Gallery along the same street.18 By 2000, there were four Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA)-licensed dog farms at Lorong Halus offering pet boarding services.19

Lorong Halus Dumping Ground

Located on the bank of Serangoon River at the former site of the Municipal Sludge Disposal Works, the 234-hectare landfill opened in 1970.20 Also known as the Serangoon Sewage or the Tampines/Lorong Halus Refuse Tipping/Dumping Ground, it was then one of two sanitary landfills in Singapore. One disposal method at these landfills involved spreading the refuse along the ground, then compacting the garbage by bulldozer, and finally covering it up with a layer of earth before further compaction.21 In addition, the site, which also housed Singapore’s last night-soil disposal station, practised controlled tipping whereby waste was buried in a pit with soil.22

By 1982, Lorong Halus was storing almost half of Singapore’s rubbish output.23 In the late 1990s, around 7 million cu m of excavated earth from the construction of the Mass Rapid Transit North-East Line was deposited at the landfill for land reclamation use.24

The landfill was initially expected to be completely filled up by 1997. However, the lifespan of the landfill was extended as a result of several factors, namely: the building of more incineration plants from the 1970s onwards, which allowed for more refuse to be burnt instead of being buried; improvement and expansion works at the landfill during the mid-’80s; and the building of a 63-hectare dumping ground beside the existing one in 1989.25 In addition, a 10-hectare wood-waste recycling plant was erected on the site in 1997.26

Government planning for alternative, less land-intensive forms of waste disposal had begun from as early as 1974.27 Singapore’s (and Southeast Asia’s) first incinerator plant was constructed at Ulu Pandan in 1978.28 The then Ministry of the Environment also developed the offshore landfill concept, which was announced in 1989 for implementation on the offshore islands, Pulau Semakau and Pulau Seking.29

Plagued by illegal dumping and constant complaints about its foul smells, open fires and pollution of the surrounding natural habitat, Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, which had been completely filled-up, closed on 31 March 1999, one day before the Semakau landfill opened.30

Trade and industry uses
Charcoal trading

As part of the redevelopment of Kampong Arang and the Environment Ministry’s Singapore River/Kallang Basin Clean Rivers project, charcoal dealers operating at Tanjong Rhu were moved to Lorong Halus between 1985 and 1987.31 Access roads, lorry parks and a 4,000-square-metre timber wharf and warehouse complex were built in the mid-1980s at the charcoal and sand/granite landing site off Lorong Halus, which became known as “Charcoal Port”.32 In 1987, there were 15 charcoal traders operating at the port. They were involved in importing charcoal from Thailand and Indonesia for local distribution as well as for re-export to countries like Saudi Arabia and Hong Kong for use in barbecues, smoking of waterpipes and incense burning.33 An average of 4,000 tonnes of charcoal were imported monthly by 1991.34 

In 1989, the police highlighted Lorong Halus Charcoal Port as a landing point that lacked an immigration checkpoint.35 Three years later, two charcoal merchants operating at Lorong Halus were arrested for hiring illegal immigrants.36 That same year, some 400 cartons of illegal cigarettes were seized from a boat docked at the port.37 On 30 September 1992, Singapore’s only charcoal port closed after its tenants, who were originally granted a three-year tenancy, were told to relocate to the Pasir Panjang Terminal.38 

In 2007, however, there were still six charcoal shops there, operating out of temporary warehouses that had been renovated two years earlier.39 The Housing and Development Board gave these dealerships until June 2007 to move out of the area, offering a factory on Defu Lane as an alternative site.40 

Other trades
The so-called charcoal port gave rise to a booming rag-and-bone trade in the late 1980s and ’90s. Karang guni men sold used household items at the port to regional boatmen, most of whom were from Indonesia and Thailand.41

Lorong Halus was also home to a beancurd processing plant in the 1980s.42 By 1987, firewood dealers from Kampong Arang in Tanjong Rhu had moved to the Lorong Halus area.43 During the 1980s, other businesses that operated in the area included a curtain fabric shop, transportation company, awning distributor, canteen and beer shop.44

Tampines Prison

Plans were announced in 1988 to build a 20-hectare, centralised Tampines Drug Rehabilitation Centre at the Lorong Halus Dumping Ground to house some 4,000 inmates.45 By 1996, Tampines Prison, which took in convicts from the demolished Chia Keng Prison, was occupying the site.46

Tampines Expressway

The TPE’s second phase, linking Elias Road to Lorong Halus, opened in 1989, providing Hougang and Tampines motorists quicker access to the eastern part of Singapore.47 While most of the work for the final phase of the TPE, connecting Lorong Halus to the Seletar Expressway, was finished by 1995, its opening was delayed until the completion of a S$39-million road interchange at the Lorong Halus Dumping Ground.48 Special measures were taken to counter the effects of decaying refuse – such as the escape of poisonous gas as well as road sinkage and corrosion – before the eight-kilometre stretch opened in 1996, shortening the travelling time between neighbourhoods in the northern and eastern regions.49 In 2008, from a point near Lorong Halus, the TPE was linked to Marina Bay and the East Coast Parkway through the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway.50

Recreational uses
In 2007, an adventure ground for extreme sports opened in Lorong Halus. Then-Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean had suggested the idea for such a facility.51 That same year, the Motorcycle Safety and Sports Club held two motorcycle racing events at temporary tracks that were 6 to 10 km long, situated in the area.52 Plans for a permanent motocross site were objected to by the Nature Society (Singapore) (NSS) on account of potential noise and pollution problems. NSS had already started conducting nature walks in the area from as early as 1999.53 Lorong Halus, the only known home of the locally endangered little grebe, has also been attracting birdwatchers since the 1960s.54

Lorong Halus Wetland

Announced in 2007, the Lorong Halus Wetland was transformed from the former landfill site as part of the Public Utilities Board’s Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters programme and officially opened on 5 March 2011.55 Costing some S$47.7 million, Singapore’s first manmade wetland protects the adjacent Serangoon Reservoir’s water quality by collecting and purifying the water leaching from the dump in shallow earth basins before discharging it into the sewage system.56

The wetland, which is known to support a wide range of biodiversity, was adopted by NSS in 2011 and aircraft engine firm Pratt & Whitney in 2014. Neighbouring secondary schools have also developed a learning trail for the wetland.57 Connected to Punggol Promenade via a pedestrian bridge, Lorong Halus Wetland became linked to three other parks when the 26-kilometre North Eastern Riverine Loop was completed in 2012.58 Plans to expand the loop were announced in 2015.59

Recent developments
Industrial park

One of the recommendations in the 2010 report by the government’s Economic Strategies Committee was to convert the disused landfill at Lorong Halus into an industrial park. Part of the government’s push to promote “live-work-play” enclaves, the development was projected to have integrated commercial, retail and lifestyle features while surrounded by greenery.60

Power station
In 2009, the government announced that the first power station in eastern Singapore would be developed at Lorong Halus to meet growing industrial demand and reduce transmission losses of delivery from the west.61

Drone delivery

In 2015, a drone operated by Singapore Post delivered a postal package from Lorong Halus to Pulau Ubin – the world’s first successful unmanned-aerial-vehicle delivery trial by a postal service provider.62

Plankton bloom
In 2014 and 2015, more than 50 fisheries off Lorong Halus were hit by a plankton bloom that wiped out their entire fish stock.63

Wildlife sightings
Otters and wild boars have been spotted at Lorong Halus. In 2016, curious members of the public who wanted to feed the wild boars created a litter problem in the area as they left behind bags of food for these animals. This prompted the AVA to start culling operations to control the area’s boar population.64

Dan Koh

1. “The DNA of Singapore: Lorong Halus,” Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, accessed 12 October 2016.
2. Survey Department, Singapore. Punggol Mukim, Tampines Mukim, Teban Mukim, and Saranggong Mukim, 4 January 1934, survey map, National Archvies of Singapore (accession no. SP005323); “Tampines Expressway,” Business Times, 30 May 1989, 2 (From NewspaperSG); Land Authority, Singapore, One Historical Map, n.d.
3. Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Provisional Issue, 1953, survey map, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. TM000043); Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore. Instrumental Plot – Lorong Halus, 1970, topographic map, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. TM000653); Desmond Chew Sing Yeoh, oral history interview by Jesley Chua Chee Huan, 4 November 1999, MP3 audio, 29:35 (National Archives of Singapore document no. 002180 – 12); Jerome Lim, “A Look at a Dump,” Blog, 30 October 2013; “Charcoal Traders to Move to Tampines,” Straits Times, 21 April 1984, 10. (From NewspaperSG)
4. Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, “Lorong Halus.”
5. Joyce M. Hawkins, “Lorong” in Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford Fajar Inggeris-Melayu, Melayu-Inggeris (Malaysia: Oxford Fajar, 2008), 166; Peter K. G. Dunlop, Street Names of Singapore (Singapore: Who’s Who Publishing, 2000), 192. (Call no. RSING 959.57 DUN-[HIS])
6. Survey Department, Singapore,Punggol Mukim.
7. Land Authority, Singapore, One Historical Map; Ministry of Education, Yuh Cheng School, 1957–1967, National Archives of Singapore (microfilm ME4145); “9 Schools to Close Down,” New Nation, 21 November 1977, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
8. Land Authority, Singapore, One Historical Map.
9. C. H. Goldie, “Singapore Municipality,” Straits Times, 24 November 1937, 2 (From NewspaperSG); Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Provisional Issue.
10. Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Provisional Issue; Singapore Land Authority, Singapore. Tampines, 16 September 1964, topographic map, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. TM001108); Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Road Map. Punggol, 1985, survey map, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. SP006586)
11. Survey Department, Singapore, Instrumental Plot.
12. “The Pond Owner ‘Got His Man’ at Market,” Straits Times, 25 February 1971, 5 (From NewspaperSG); Desmond Chew Sing Yeoh, oral history interview, 4 November 1999 – 12
13. “PPD, ENV: Water Is Fine,” New Paper, 15 July 1994, 9. (From NewspaperSG)
14. “Page 8 Advertisements Column 2,” Straits Times, 31 March 1993, 8; “Page 28 Advertisements Column 2,” Straits Times, 19 September 1997, 28. (From NewspaperSG)
15. Gracie Chua, “New Plan to Boost Singapore’s Sustainable Food Fish Production,” Straits Times, 25 July 2014; “Upcoming Jetty at Lorong Halus to Have Waste Collection Centre,” Channel NewsAsia, 11 November 2013. (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website)
16. Lim Kwan Kwan, “Part of Farm to Make Way for Road,” Straits Times, 11 July 1986, 23. (From NewspaperSG)
17. “Page 3 Advertisements Column 3,” Straits Times, 1 October 1994, 3; “Page 15 Advertisements Column 1,” Straits Times, 11 December 1994, 15. (From NewspaperSG)
18. Angeline Song, “Zoe’s Pet Loves,” New Paper, 9 November 1995, 26. (From NewspaperSG)
19. Leong Phei Phei, “Pet House Misery,” Today, 1 December 2000, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
20. Cheong Suk-Wai, “The Smell of Success,” Straits Times, 23 June 2012, 8–9 (From NewspaperSG); Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Provisional Issue; Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Road Map. Punggol.
21. Survey Department, Singapore, Singapore Road Map. Punggol; “Page 21 Advertisements Column 4,” Straits Times, 26 April 1974, 21; “Page 38 Advertisements Column 4,” Straits Times, 7 January 1983, 38; “Incinerator Plant to Be Built Next Year,” Straits Times, 29 October 1975, 11. (From NewspaperSG)
22. “Refuse Output Will Treble By Year 2000,” Straits Times, 10 October 1977, 9; “Death Knell of Nightsoil Buckets,” Straits Times, 24 January 1987, 17 (From NewspaperSG); OpenLearn Works. (2011, July 21). “22.3.4 Final Disposal: Landfill, Controlled Tipping and Burning,” OpenLearn Works, accessed 12 October 2016.
23. “
Higher Refuse Charges from Next Month,” Singapore Monitor, 18 November 1983, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
24. “Barge That Allegedly Dumped Earth Not Back Yet,” Straits Times, 28 January 1999, 36; Dominic Nathan, “Excavators for N-E Line Will Dig Up 7.6 Million Cu m of Earth,” Straits Times, 7 January 1997, 25. (From NewspaperSG)
25. Lynette Ong, “Third Incineration Plant to Handle Expected Increase in Rubbish,” Straits Times, 11 December 1988, 24; “Page 12 Advertisements Column 2,” Straits Times, 18 February 1983, 12; “MRT Project Gets $650 M,” Straits Times, 3 March 1984, 12; Michael Liu, “Govt Will Prevent Dump Site from Polluting Sea,” Straits Times, 26 February 1989, 14. (From NewspaperSG)
26. Dominic Nathan, “Second Recycling Park Taking Shape in Tampines,” Straits Times, 25 November 1996, 33. (From NewspaperSG)
27. Param Ajeet Singh Bal, oral history interview by Foo Kim Leng, 12 May 2010, transcript and MP3 audio, 50:15, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. 001942), 144.
28. Bernard Chen Tian Lap, “The Seminar on Pollution Prevention and Environmental Conservation,” speech, Gardenia Room, ShangriLa Hotel, 28 April 1978, transcript, Ministry of Culture (From National Archives of Singapore document no. cb19780428s), 5; Param Ajeet Singh Bal, oral history interview, 12 May 2010, 148. – 6
29. Lee Ek Tieng, oral history interview by Lim Siam Kim, 29 April 2004, transcript and MP3 audio, 30:57, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. 002832), 29; Tan Gee Paw, oral history interview by Jason Lim, 20 November 2007, transcript and MP3 audio, 58–17, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. 003170), 87–87; Lee Han Shih, “Big Off-Shore Dumping Ground Planned,” Business Times, 11 February 1989, 20. (From NewspaperSG)
30. “Illegal Dumping: Two Fined $3,000 Each,” Straits Times, 20 December 1996, 56; Victor Adrian Lim, “Haze Over Pasir Ris in the Night,” Straits Times, 16 May 1995, 32; M. Croft, “It Is Not Being Collected Daily in This Estate,” Straits Times, 15 August 1983, 17; Ilsa Sharp, “Swamped with Life and Vitality,” Singapore Monitor, 29 April 1984, 27 (From NewspaperSG); Joan Cheng, “Lesson from Lion City in Tackling the Trash Trouble,” Standard, 8 May 2006 (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website); Goh Chok Tong, “The Launch of the Clean and Green Week,” speech, Marina City Park, 7 November 1999, transcript, Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. (From National Archives of Singapore document no. 1999110703)
31. Julia Goh, “Geylang River Gets Clean Bill of Health,” Straits Times, 14 July 1989, 17; “Charcoal Traders to Move to Tampines,” Straits Times, 21 April 1984, 10; Joyce Lim, “Dealers Have to Vacate Land,” New Paper, 11 March 2007, 9; “Charcoal Port Near Tampines to Go, New One Offered at Pasir Panjang,” Straits Times, 23 September 1992, 20. (From NewspaperSG)
32. “HDB Awards 11 New Contracts Worth $9M,” Business Times, 5 October 1985, 2; Serena Toh, “Charcoal Trade Blazes On,” Straits Times, 30 June 1987, 10; Lim Seng Tiong, “Coal Porters,” Straits Times, 13 December 1991, 16. (From NewspaperSG)
33. Toh, “Charcoal Trade Blazes On.” 
34. Lim, “Coal Porters.”
35. Brendan Pereira, “Police Worried about 5 Official Landing Points,” Straits Times, 30 June 1989, 20. (From NewspaperSG)
36. “Woman Who Hired Illegal Immigrants Jailed after Appeal,” Straits Times, 3 April 1992, 20; “Trader Put On Probation for Hiring Illegal Worker Now Jailed,” Straits Times, 10 January 1992, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
37. “400 Cartons of Cigarettes Found Hidden in Boat at Charcoal Port,” Straits Times, 29 September 1992, 20. (From NewspaperSG)
38. “Charcoal Port Near Tampines to Go.”
39. Lim, “Dealers Have to Vacate Land”; Kua Chee Siong, “Charcoal Charm,” New Paper, 11 March 2007, 8. (From NewspaperSG)
40. Goh Choon Chor, oral history interview by Lim Lai Hwa, 22 January 2008, MP3 audio, 41:57, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. 003276); Lim, “Dealers Have to Vacate Land.”
41. Tan Ee Sze, “Rag-and-Bone Trade at Charcoal Port,” Straits Times, 24 January 1988, 13; Bernard Pereira, “Treasure Trash,” New Paper, 10 November 1997, 9. (From NewspaperSG)
42. Quek Tiong Swee, Bean Curd Processing at Lorong Halus, Tampines Area, 18 June 1985, photograph, Quek Tiong Swee collection, National Archives of Singapore (Media-image no. 19980005724 – 0063) 
43. “Key Dates in the Kallang Basin and Singapore River Clean-Up,” Straits Times, 25 June 1987, 3; “Page 26 Advertisements Column 3,” Straits Times, 7 October 1987, 26; “Page 34 Advertisements Column 3,” Straits Times, 16 October 1992, 34. (From NewspaperSG)
44. “Page 20 Advertisements Column 1,” Straits Times, 15 December 1985, 20; “Page 3 Advertisements Column 3,” Straits Times, 26 March 1984, 3; “Page 29 Advertisements Column 6,” Straits Times, 24 June 1988, 29; “Page 15 Advertisements Column 1,” Straits Times, 30 June 1981, 15; “Page 21 Advertisements Column 3,” Business Times, 24 October 1988,  21. (From NewspaperSG)
45. Brendan Pereira, “New Centre to House All Drug Offenders,” Straits Times, 20 July 1988, 19. (From NewspaperSG)
46. “Page 31 Advertisements Column 2,” Straits Times, 20 December 1996, 31; “Neighbours Miss the Boys Next Door Now That Prison Has Moved,” Straits Times, 19 July 1993, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
47. “Tampines Expressway,” Business Times, 30 May 1989, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
48. Leong Chan Teik, “Expressway Laid Out a Year Ago, But Still Closed,” Straits Times, 9 January 1996, 24. (From NewspaperSG)
49. Leong Chan Teik, “Why Special Steps Needed to Build Road Interchange,” Straits Times, 19 February 1996, 22. (From NewspaperSG); Mah Bow Tan, “The Opening of Tampines Expressway (Phase III),” speech, Punggol Bridge, 3 September 1996, transcript, Ministry of Information and the Arts. (From National Archives of Singapore document no. mbt19960903s), 2.
50. Christopher Tan “New S$1.5B Expressway to Marina Downtown,” Business Times, 7 May 1999, 4; “Experts Declare KPE Safe to Be Opened,” Today, 18 September 2008, 10. (From NewspaperSG)
51. Chua Hian Hou, “Thrill Factor May Go North,” Straits Times, 5 February 2007, 25. (From NewspaperSG)
52. Zaihan Mohamed Yusof, “Muddy Hell,” New Paper, 3 February 2007, 30; Tan Yihui, “Ruffled Feathers,” Straits Times, 21 October 2007, 46. (From NewspaperSG)
53. Tan, “Ruffled Feathers”; Lea Wee, “You May Come Across a Croc,” Straits Times, 11 September 1999, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
54. Wee, “You May Come Across a Croc”; B. Jagdish “Let's Develop Singapore While Respecting Nature: Nature Society President on Cross Island Line,” Channel NewsAsia, 19 March 2016. (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website)
55. “Singapore Roundup,” Business Times, 31 January 2007, 13 (From NewspaperSG); Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, “Lorong Halus.”
56. “Singapore's Waterways to Receive Makeover,” Channel NewsAsia, 20 January 2007 (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website); Cheong, “Smell of Success”; Ong Dai Lin, “From Former Landfill to Wetland…,” Today, 5 March 2011, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
57. L. Wong, “Pratt & Whitney’s Water Use Cut by 40% since 2000,” Business Times, 13 June 2014 (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website); PUB, Watermark Award: Recognising Outstanding Water Contributions (Singapore: Public Utilities Board, 2011), 57; Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, “Lorong Halus”; “Lorong Halus Wetland,” Public Utilities Board, accessed 12 October 2016.
58. Ong, “From Former Landfill to Wetland…”; Joyce Teo, “Running Around the Island,” Straits Times, 8 August 2013, 4–5. (From NewspaperSG)
59. “A New Singapore Presented by DBS; A Self-Contained Community Amid Nature,” Straits Times, 10 June 2015 (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website) 60. Koh Hui Theng, “Grow Live-Work-Play Zones,” MyPaper, 5 February 2010 (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website); Neo Chai Chin, “Live, Work, Play,” Today, 5 February 2010, 15. (From NewspaperSG)
61. “Power to Rise from the East with New Station,” Business Times, 18 November 2009, 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. I. Tham, “World-First Successful Drone Trial By SingPost,” MyPaper, 9 October 2015. (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website)
63. Carolyn Khew, “Fish farm Goes Online to Raise Funds to Keep Going,” Straits Times, 3 March 2015, 3; Carolyn Khew, “Govt to Help Fish Farms, But Farmers Must Be Vigilant,” Straits Times, 6 March  2015, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
64. Lea Wee, “Mad about Otters: Enthusiasts Look Out for Charming Animals,” Straits Times, 24 July 2016, 6; Ong Yan Quan, “Boar Feeders Create Litter Problem in Lorong Halus,” New Paper, 5 July 2016. (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website)

Further resource
S. Tay, “Grassy Haven,” Pure, 2nd Qtr., (2011), 4–9. (Call no. RSING 333.910095957 P)

The information in this article is valid as of 30 November 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

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