Changi Prison Complex

Singapore Infopedia


Completed in 1936, Changi Prison (historically also referred to as “Changi Gaol/Jail”) was the last prison built by the British colonial government. It is known for being an internment camp during the Second World War. The original premises were demolished to make way for the new Changi Prison Complex, which was unveiled in two phases in 2004 and 2010. Capital punishment by hanging as well as judicial caning are carried out at the Changi Prison Complex.

By the early 1930s, Pearl’s Hill Prison, Singapore’s only penal facility at the time, had become overcrowded and was bereft of any proper segregation in the prisoner population. In January 1933, the Legislative Council, worried about the situation, approved the construction of a new convict jail in Changi. The new jail aimed to ease the congestion at Pearl’s Hill Prison and to provide a modern and more secure penal facility, one that could accommodate the segregation of prisoners in order to prevent recidivism.1 Construction of Changi Prison began later that year, undertaken by local construction firm, Woh Hup.2

Though gazetted as a prison on 24 December 1936, the prison was only operational from 4 January 1937.3

The old Changi Prison was built to accommodate 600 prisoners. The original complex had two main four-storey buildings, each comprising two blocks. Work rooms were on the ground floor, while cells were located above. There was a separate block that could hold 24 European prisoners, a hospital block as well as punishment cells and cells for recalcitrant offenders.4 The prison was also fitted with a modern sewerage system, a central laundry as well as a kitchen with modern cooking equipment.5

Being a maximum-security prison, Changi was equipped with an extensive alarm system. Each cell also had an electric light and a latrine with flush, and prisoners could take showers at designated areas surrounding the exercise yards. A six-metre-tall wall surrounded the prison, while four turrets at each corner served as watchtowers.6

In 1948, the Prisons Department reported that Changi Prison had 597 cells and could accommodate 1,000 inmates comfortably.7

Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942–45)
Shortly after the fall of Singapore to the invading Japanese during the Second World War, Western8 civilians, including men, women and children, were rounded up and interned at Changi Prison. Though only equipped with a capacity for 600 prisoners, the jail had about 2,8009 civilian internees by August 1945 and this figure continued to grow over the span of the occupation. In 1945, there were about 4,500 civilian internees, although this group were interned at Sime Road Camp by then.10 Allied prisoners-of-war (POWs), on the other hand, were held at former British military barracks – such as Selarang, Roberts and Kitchener – also located in Changi, further east from the jail.11

At the start of the civilian internment in the prison premises, there were 359 women, 61 children and 2,200 men.12 Men and women were clustered in separate blocks, and were not allowed to meet each other. However, the detainees eventually devised ways to pass letters and messages to each other.13 The internal organisation of the camp was largely left to the detainees themselves, with each block electing its own leader, and the detainees were responsible for the maintenance of the camp.14

In order to pass the time and improve morale among the prisoners, both the men’s and women’s blocks organised entertainment and leisure programmes. The women held piano recitals, theatre productions, comedy, lectures and even circus shows.15 They also published a newspaper called POW WOW, led by former Malaya Tribune journalist Freddy Bloom. The objectives of POW WOW were to provide entertainment, intellectual stimulation and social cohesion among the female detainees. Its first issue was released on 1 April 1942 and ran for almost 19 months until its last edition on 15 October 1943. The newspaper set out ground rules, disseminated information and discussed a variety of issues.16 The male civilians also published a newspaper called Changi Guardian.17

In May 1944, all the POWs from the various POW camps in Changi were moved into Changi Prison, while the civilian internees were transferred to Sime Road Camp.18 The move also included the Roman Catholic chapel that had been built at the Sime Road Camp.19 Altogether, there were about 12,000 POWs packed into the prison complex after the relocation.20 Conditions for the POWs there were worse than what they were used to in the barracks because of overcrowding in the prison as well as a more authoritarian style of administration by the Japanese.21

Nonetheless, the POWs still did not give up on their means of entertainment for boosting their morale. In September 1944, the POWs opened Playhouse Theatre, a makeshift venue where theatrical performances could be held.22

Following the formal surrender of the Japanese on 2 September 1945, the POWs held at Changi Prison were liberated a few days later.23 The prison was then used to detain Japanese war criminals and suspects, and was where most of the executions – either by hanging or firing squad – were carried out for those convicted with a death sentence.24

Administered by the British Military Administration after the war, Changi Prison was handed back to the Prisons Department on 15 October 1947. Subsequently, long-sentence prisoners at Pearl’s Hill Prison were transferred back to Changi.25

Significant developments
Rehabilitation by agricultural work
Changi Prison was the first prison to implement agricultural farming as there had not been sufficient land for this purpose at the earlier prisons, which were located in town.26 The subject of having an agricultural plot of land had been discussed at the outset when Changi was being considered as the location for the new prison.27 Finally, in July 1949, a 30-acre farm maintained by prisoners was started with the aim of cultivating vegetables for the prisoners’ meals. By the end of 1949, with a third of the allotted land cleared of lalang, 13,870 lbs (6,291 kg) of vegetables had been harvested.28 The farm went into full production in 1950, and the prison’s fresh vegetable supply became largely self-sustainable. Buoyed by the success, a pig farm was begun that same year. In 1951, a chicken section was added, and fresh eggs were sent daily to patients at the prison hospital.29 Two years later, cattle was added to the farm.30

Prisoners deemed to be of good conduct were sent to work at the farm, which was located beyond the prison walls, with light supervision. Then-Acting Commissioner of Prisons Andrew W. Clow reported that allowing the prisoners to be outdoors with fresh air and doing agricultural work improved their morale.31

There were some escapes by those working at the farm.32 In 1970, following four escapes via the prison farm within two weeks, it was suggested that the prison farm be closed down. However, the prison authorities stood by the efficacy and importance of having the agricultural work as a means of rehabilitation.33

Prisoners’ earning scheme
Following the recommendations put forth by the Prison Enquiry Commission of 1948, an earning scheme for prison labour was implemented in 1950. The scheme had three grades when it was introduced:34

Grade A: Prison labourers earned 15 cents per working day or part thereof. They could be promoted to this grade based on “exemplary behaviour and progress in conduct and work”, or to recognise them for a “special meritorious act”.
Grade B: Prison labourers earned 10 cents per working day or part thereof. Offenders could be promoted to this grade based on “exemplary behaviour and progress in conduct and work”.
Grade C: Prison labourers earned 8 cents per working day or part thereof. Offenders were placed in this category after serving six months of their sentence.

Corrective training and preventive detention
Changi Prison saw the introduction of two new penal categories in 1955: corrective training and preventive detention. Singapore was reportedly the first to implement these types of reform in Southeast Asia. A block within the prison complex was converted for corrective training and preventive detention.35

Prisoners sent for corrective training were young offenders sentenced to more than a year’s imprisonment, and they received vocational training. Those placed under preventive detention were older recidivists.36

Political detentions
The old prison is also significant for being the site where many trade unionists, suspected communists and political prisoners were held in the 1950s and 60s, following a series of riots and civil unrest in the decade leading to Singapore’s independence. Many detainees swept up during Operation Cold Store in 1963 were also held at Changi Prison.37 Among the prominent political figures who had once been detained at Changi Prison were Lim Chin Siong,38 Fong Swee Suan,39 Lim Hock Siew,40 James Puthucheary, Poh Soo Kai – former People’s Action Party (PAP) members who later formed Barisan Sosialis – journalist Said Zahari and Devan Nair,41 a PAP member who later became the president of Singapore.42

Upgrading and centralisation of prisons
Changi Prison was upgraded between the late 1970s and early 80s to alleviate overcrowding. Two new five-storey blocks were erected for holding prisoners, among the addition of other features such as automatic gates and amenities like a squash court for prison officers.43

By the late 1990s, the government had surfaced plans to build a new Changi Prison on the site of the old prison grounds. The new mega-prison complex would have “world-class facilities and security features”. The various prisons in Singapore would be centralised there for a more cost-effective and efficient prison administration, and at the same time also free up land for commercial and residential development.44 Prisoners from other carceral facilities located all over the island would be centralised at the same complex.45

However, the redevelopment plan was met with much resistance from heritage advocates, former POWs and Australian politicians, because of the historical significance of the prison as a primary internment camp during the Second World War.46 As a compromise, the Singapore authorities preserved a 180-metre stretch of wall, two turrets and its entrance gate. The demolition was carried out in 2004.47

Changi Prison Complex
In August 2004, Cluster A of Changi Prison Complex was officially unveiled, equipped with the “latest computerised security and monitoring features”. There was constant surveillance via closed-circuit televisions, communications and other security systems. All corridors in Cluster A were fitted with electronically monitored doors and gates, while perimeter security was also improved.48 The prison system in Singapore was henceforth organised into clusters – a system that allows for an integrated security system.49 Cluster A comprises inmates from the former Changi Prison, Moon Crescent Prison, Jalan Awan Prison and the Changi Reformative Training Centre.50

Cluster B, the other component of Changi Prison Complex, was officially opened in January 2010. Inmates from five separate institutions – Queenstown Remand Prison, Sembawang Drug Rehabilitation Centre (DRC), Khalsa Crescent DRC, Selarang Park DRC and Tanah Merah Prison – were moved into Cluster B.51 Cluster B had 1,800 cells among five prisons, each installed with up-to-date technology. These include electronically operated locks and an intelligent video motion system for detecting intrusions. With the completion of Cluster B, Changi Prison Complex could accommodate 11,000 prisoners.52

In October 2017, Changi Women’s Prison was moved into Cluster A.53 Previously grouped under the Cluster C correctional facilities, the women’s prison had not been part of the Changi Prison Complex.54

Capital punishment and caning
Capital punishment by hanging is carried out at the Changi Prison Complex, where death row inmates are also held. Judicial caning is also conducted at the prison complex.55

National monument
On 15 February 2016, the 74th anniversary of Singapore’s surrender to the Japanese during the Second World War, the remaining parts of the old Changi Prison – the 180-metre stretch of wall, two turrets and its entrance gate – were gazetted as Singapore’s 72nd national monument.56

Recent developments
In 2018, the Singapore Prison Service announced that Changi Prison Complex, using technology, was moving towards the concept of a “prison without guards”. Trials conducted at the prison include automated muster checks, where facial recognition technology is used for verification of the inmates, as well as a surveillance system capable of detecting fights.57

1933: Construction of prison begins.
1936: Construction completed.
24 Dec 1936: Changi Gaol is gazetted.
15 Feb 1942: Britain surrenders Singapore to the Japanese.
17 Feb 1942:
Western civilians are rounded up and interned at Changi Prison.

May 1944: Civilian internees at Changi Prison are transferred to Sime Road Camp, while Allied POWs are moved into the prison complex.
Sep 1945: Liberation of POWs at Changi Prison.
15 Oct 1947: British Military Administration hands back Changi Prison to the Prisons Department.
1955: Corrective training and preventive detention introduced as new categories of prisoners. A block within the compound is designated to hold these groups of offenders.
1958: Changi Camp becomes a reformative training centre for young offenders.
1960: National Library begins supplying books in all languages to Changi Prison.58
31 Dec 1999: Groundbreaking ceremony for new 48-hectare Changi Prison Complex.59
2004: Old Changi Prison is demolished, except for two corner turrets, a 180-metre stretch of wall and its entrance gate.
2004: Cluster A of the new Changi Prison Complex is opened, comprising five eight-storey blocks.
2010: Cluster B is opened, increasing the capacity of Changi Prison Complex to 11,000.
2016: Remnants of the old prison – the two turrets, wall and gate – are gazetted as a national monument.
2017: Changi Women’s Prison is moved into Cluster A.
2018: Launch of high-tech trials for moving Changi Prison towards becoming a “prison without guards”.

Fiona Lim

1. “Meeting of Legislative Council,” Straits Times, 17 January 1933, 12; “A Potential Prison Danger,” Straits Times, 23 January 1933, 12 (From NewspaperSG); Olivia Chua, From Bras Basah to Changi: A History of Prisons in Pre-War Singapore (Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1990), 34. (Call no. RCLOS 940.547252 CHU)
2. “Public Works,” Malaya Tribune, 2 October 1933, 3; “The New Gaol,” Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 8 March 1934, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
3. E. S Lilley, Annual Report on the Prisons of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States for the Year 1936 (No. 94 of 1937) (Singapore: Govt. Print. Off., 1937), 1. (Microfilm NL9476)
4. “Singapore’s New $2,000,000 Prison,” Straits Times, 13 December 1936, 9. (From NewspaperSG)
5. George L. Peet, Within Changi’s Walls: A Record of Civilian Internment in World War II (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2011), 18. (Call no. RSING 940.53175957092 PEE)
6. “Singapore’s New $2,000,000 Prison”; Peet, Within Changi’s Walls, 18, 25; Melody Zaccheus, “Making Changi Prison Monument More Visible,” Straits Times, 16 February 2016, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
7. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1947 (Singapore: Govt. Print., 1948), 5. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
8. According to Joseph Kennedy, two-thirds of the civilians interned at Changi Prison at the beginning were British, while the remaining were American, Dutch, Czechs, Norwegians, or Eurasians or Jews residing in Singapore, Joseph Kennedy, British Ciivilians and the Japanese War in Malaya and Singapore, 1941–45 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987), 87 (Call no. RSING 959.51034 KEN). However, in end 1943, added to the internment camp were Tamil, French, Javanese, Brazilian, Turkish and Iraqi women, M. Nakahara, “The Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” in New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941–1945, ed. Akashi Yoji and Yoshimura Mako (Singapore: NUS Press, 2008), 200. (Call no. RSING 940.5337 NEW-[WAR])
9. Lucy Robertson from the Australian War Memorial states this figure as 2,400,  “Lucy Robertson,” in The Changi Book, ed. Lachlan Grant (Australia: New South, 2015), 64. (Call no. RSING 940.547252 CHA-[WAR])
10. Nakahara, “Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” 196, 200, 215.
11. Lee Geok Boi, Syonan: Singapore under the Japanese 1942–1945 (Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society, 2017), 80 (Call no. RSING 940.535957 LEE); K. Mitchell, “Map of Changi,” in The Changi Book, ed. Lachlan Grant (Australia: New South, 2015), 2. (Call no. RSING 940.547252 CHA-[WAR])
12. Nakahara, “Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” 196. These figures vary slightly with what Joseph Kennedy provided. He wrote that there were 349 women and 55 children, Kennedy, British Ciivilians and the Japanese War, 87.
13. Nakahara, “Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” 197.
14. Peet, Within Changi’s Walls, 29.
15. Nakahara, “Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” 198; “Lucy Robertson,” 65.
16. Nakahara, “Civilian Women’s Internment Camp in Singapore,” 204–05, 210.
17. Bernice Archer, The Internment of the Western Civilians under the Japanese 1941–1945: A Patchwork of Internment (New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004), 105. (Call no. RSING 940.53170952 ARC-[WAR])
18. H. A. Probert, History of Changi (Singapore: Prison Industries in Changi Prison, 1965), 52, 54 (Call no. RCLOS 959.51 PRO)
19. This chapel was torn down after the war in 1946 and its parts shipped to Canberra, Australia. The chapel was reconstructed there in 1988 and now serves as a war memorial. See Hamzah Muzaini and Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Contested Memoryscapes: The Politics of Second World War Commemoration in Singapore (New York: Routledge, 2016), 63. (Call no. RSING 940.546095957 MUZ-[WAR])
20. C. M. Turnbull, A History of Modern Singapore, 1819–2005 (Singapore: NUS Press, 2009), 214. (Call no. RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
21. R. P. W. Havers, Reassessing the Japanese Prisoner of War Experience (London: Routledge, 2012), 137–38 (Call no. RSING 940.547252 HAV-[WAR]); Tim Bowden, Changi Photographer: George Aspinall’s Record of Captivity (Singapore: Times Editions, 1991), 134. (Call no. RSING 940.547252092 ASP-[WAR])
22. “An Ex-POW Remember Changi Playhouse,” Straits Times, 2 December 1946, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
23. Lachlan Grant, ed., “Thoughts of Home: Liberation and Repatriation,” in The Changi Book (Australia: New South, 2015), 340. (Call no. RSING 940.547252 CHA-[WAR])
24. “Execution of Japs,” Straits Times, 28 July 1946, 3; “2 Nips Shots at Changi,” Singapore Free Press, 28 September 1946, 1; “10 More Japanese Hanged at Changi,” Straits Times, 26 February 1947, 1; “War Crimes Japs Going,” Straits Times, 2 April 1951, 1. (From NewspaperSG)
25. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1947, 3.
26. “The New Prison at Changi,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 16 February 1936, 11. (From NewspaperSG)
27. “Possibilities of Penang Hill Development,” Straits Times, 17 January 1933, 12. (From NewspaperSG)
28. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1949 (Singapore: Govt. Print., 1950), 10. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
29. “Success Story from Changi,” Straits Times, 28 May 1950, 9; “Changi Jail Supplied By Own Farm,” Singapore Standard, 3 April 1951, 2 (From NewspaperSG); Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1952 (Singapore: Govt. Print., 1953), 9. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
30. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1953 (Singapore: Govt. Print., 1954), 19. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
31. “Success Story from Changi”; Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1949, 10.
32. “Changi ‘Model’ Prisoner Escapes,” Straits Times, 28 November 1952, 1; Prisoner Escapes from Changi,” Indian Daily Mail, 28 November 1952, 1; “Hunt On for Escaped Prisoner,” Straits Times, 22 May 1971, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
33. “Big Police Hunt for Changi Escapee,” Straits Times, 16 December 1970, 10; “Fourth Escape from Changi in Two Weeks,” Singapore Herald, 16 December 1970, 3; “Authorities Tell Why Farming at Prison will Continue,” Straits Times, 17 December 1970, 8. (From NewspaperSG)
34. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1950 (Singapore: Govt. Print., 1951), 1, 6. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
35. “Changi Gets a Face-Lift,” Straits Times, 15 March 1955, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
36. “New Experiment in Changi Prison,” Singapore Standard, 15 March 1955, 3. (From Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
37. “Detainees sent to Changi Jail,” Straits Times, 1 May 1963, 9. (From newspaperSG)
38. Singapore Press Holdings (SPH), Lim Chin Siong (Second Right) and Other Political Detainees after Giving a Press Conference at Changi Prison, 16 June 1967, photograph, National Archives of Singapore (Media-Image no. PCD0362-0091)
39. Li Xueying, “‘We came Out Feeling very low, very sombre’,” Straits Times, 30 May 2009, 98. (From NewspaperSG)
40. Lim Hock Siew, oral history interview by Foo Kim Leng and Lim How Seng, 14 January 1986, transcript and audio, 23:40, National Archives of Singapore (accession no. 000215), 402–08.
41. “Devan Nair to Stay in Detention – Official,” Straits Times, 17 May 1958, 9. (From NewspaperSG)
42. Said Zahari, The Long Nightmare: My 17 Years as a Political Prisoner (Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors, 2007), 50 (Call no. RSING 365.45095957 SAI); K. F. Tan, K. F. (2013). “Standing on the Moral High Ground,” in S. K. Poh, K. F. Tan & L. Hong (Eds.), The 1963 Operation Coldstore in Singapore: Commemorating 50 years, ed. Poh Soo Kai, Tan Kok Fang and Hong Lysa (Malaysia: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, 2013), 333–36. (Call no. RSING 959.5704 NIN-[HIS])
43. “New Cells in Changi Prison,” New Nation, 10 December 1979, 2; “Prison Opens Its Gates to Automation,” New Nation, 9 December 1980, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
44. Azhar Ghani, “When Every Jailbird Matters…,” New Paper, 31 December 1999, 5; Lee Han Shih, “Centralising Prisons Could Yield 61 Hectares of Land,” Business Times, 21 February 2000, 1. (From NewspaperSG)
45. K. C. Vijayan, “Highrise Cells in Changi Prison’s New $1B Complex,” Straits Times, 23 August 2001, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
46. Chen Zaoyan Madeline, “Preserve Changi Prison as WWII Site,” Straits Times, 31 March 2003, 18; K. C. Vijayan, “Changi Prison May Be Spared,” Straits Times, 29 March 2003, 9; K. C. Vijayan, “Changi Prison: Still Time for a Rethink,” Straits Times, 20 February 2004, 16 (From NewspaperSG); M. Baker, “Singapore Reviews Changi Demolition,” The Age, 27 September 2003.
47. Wu Peining, “Part of Changi Prison to Be Preserved,” Straits Times, 7 March 2004, 14. (From NewspaperSG)
48. Singapore Prison Service, “A New Era for the Singapore Prison Service,” press release, 16 August 2004; Tanya Fong, “New Changi Prison Goes High-Tech,” Straits Times, 17 August 2004, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
49. Prison Service, Singapore, “Captains of Lives: Rehab, Renew, Restart: Singapore Prison Service Annual Report 2008,” (Singapore: Prison Service, 2009), 43.
50. Vijayan, “Highrise Cells in Changi Prison’s New $1B Complex.”
51. Andre Yeo, “Smooth Move,” New Paper, 21 January 2010, 10. (From NewspaperSG)
52. “More Capacity at Changi Prison,” Straits Times, 21 January 2010, 3 (From NewspaperSG); Prison Service, Singapore, Singapore Prison Service Annual Report 2010 (Singapore: Prison Service, 2011), 72–73.
53. Prison Service, Singapore, Reaching New Heights: Singapore Prison Service Annual Report 2017 (Singapore: Prison Service, 2018), 16–17.
54. Prison Service, Singapore, Singapore Prison Service Annual Report 2008 (Singapore: Prison Service, 2009), 30.
55. Nur Dianah Suhaimi, “Harvesting Organs from Death Row Donors,” Straits Times, 11 January 2009, 2; Khushwant Singh, “Man Gets 4 Years’ Jail, 6 Strokes for Role in Gang Attack,” Straits Times, 5 February 2014, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
56. Zaccheus, “Making Changi Prison Monument More Visible”; National Heritage Board, “The National Heritage Board Gazettes Changi Prison Entrance Gate, Wall and Turrets as a National Monument,” media release, 15 February 2016.
57. “Changi Prison Raises Tech Bar with Automated Checks, Surveillance System That Detects Fights,” Channel NewsAsia, 21 June 2018. (From Factiva via NLB’s eResources website): 
58. Prisons Department, Singapore, Annual Report 1960 (Singapore: Govt. Print. Off., 1962), 8. (Call no. RCLOS 365.95957 SIN)
59. Azhar Ghani, “When Every Jailbird Matters…,” New Paper, 31 December 1999, 5. (From NewspaperSG)

Further resources
A Look at Our death Row,” Straits Times, 16 April 1978, 8. (From NewspaperSG)

K. C. Vijayan, “Changi Prison: Did It Have to Go?” Straits Times, 23 August 2008, 30. (From NewspaperSG)

K. C. Vijayan, “Prison Reflections,” Straits Times, 11 July 2004, 24. (From NewspaperSG)

National Archives of Singapore, Aerial View of a New Criminal Prison at Changi, 1936, photograph, National Archives of Singapore (Media-Image no. 19980005075 – 0055)

Ong Choo Suat, “Inside Changi,” New Nation, 3 August 1971, 9. (From NewspaperSG)

Suzanne Ooi, “Behind the Thick Walls of Changi Prison,” Straits Times, 25 May 1986, 5. (From NewspaperSG)

Teh Joo Lin, “Spearheading the Way in Prison Control,” Straits Times, 19 July 2008, 50. (From NewspaperSG)

Voices of civilian Internment: WWII Singapore,” Cambridge Digital Library, n.d. 

The information in this article is valid as at 20 August 2018 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.


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