Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan



Singapore Infopedia

by Ang, Seow Leng

Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan (潮州八邑会馆) was established in 1929 as the clan association for Singapore’s Teochew community. It plays an active role in promoting Chinese and Teochew culture and shares a fraternity relationship with Ngee Ann Kongsi. In 2022, the Huay Kuan has about 5,000 members.1

Background
Seah Eu Chin (1805–83), one of the earliest prominent and influential Teochews in Singapore, made his fortune from the cultivation of pepper and gambier. Under his leadership in 1830, he gathered 12 other surname-based clans to form a charitable welfare organisation, known then as the Ngee Ann Kun (义安郡). It is an older name for Chaozhou, where the Teochews originated from China’s Guangdong province.2 For almost a century, Ngee Ann Kun acted as the earliest umbrella dialect organisation for the Teochew community in Singapore.3

Ngee Ann Kun administered funds contributed by the Teochew community and managed properties invested using the fund and any income derived from it. Its main responsibilities included the administration of the Yueh Hai Ching Temple, where the Teochew community worshipped, and the acquisition and maintenance of burial sites for deceased Teochews.4 In 1845, the organisation was officially established and renamed Ngee Ann Kongsi, with Seah continuing as its director (zongli)5 till his death in 1883. His sons Cheo Seah and Liang Seah, and later his grandson Eng Tong, became successive directors. They kept the Kongsi accounts private even from other clan members.6

By the turn of the century, a successful Teochew businessman, Lim Nee Soon (1879–1936), began to gain prominence as a Chinese leader, and was elected as president of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce in 1921.7 Lim challenged the monopoly of the Seah family on Ngee Ann Kongsi, leading 13 other Teochew leaders in a joint letter published on 29 December 1927 in Nanyang Siang Pau. In the letter addressed to the then director, Seah Eng Tong, they questioned the right of the Seah family to monopolise the Ngee Ann Kongsi, urging Seah Eng Tong to make public the monthly income and expenses of the Kongsi, properties owned and information about the Kongsi’s structure.8

Establishment
Further challenging the Seah family’s control over Ngee Ann Kongsi, Lim invited all Teochews to attend a meeting on 15 September 1928 at the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce to discuss forming a Teochew association in Singapore. More than 50 Teochews attended. The constitution was drafted on 12 December 1928 and passed on 2 February 1929, with the formation of an executive committee and Lim as the president.9 Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan was formed in 1929 and is the second largest clan association after the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan.10 The Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan members are from the Teochew districts of Teo Ann (潮安), Theng Hai (澄海), Teo Yeo (潮阳), Kit Yeo (揭阳), Jiow Pheng (饶平), Pho Leng (普宁), Hui Lai (惠来) and Nam Oa (南澳).11

Aims
Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan was formed,

  1. “to cultivate friendship and fellowship amongst the members of each Teochew District, and to keep in contact with other societies and the Huay Kuan” and
  2. “to foster the spirit of mutual aid, cooperation and unite amongst the members; to carry out charitable works; to promote traditional virtues; and to popularise cultural and educational activities.”12


In a letter addressed to the directors of the Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan and the Ngee Ann Kongsi dated 28 October 1965 by Yeo Chan Boon, the Huay Kuan’s second president, he explained the genesis of the formation of the Huay Kuan as the umbrella organisation and its fraternity relationship with Ngee Ann Kongsi. He also explained the arrangement of having the Huay Kuan’s president and two vice-presidents sit on the Ngee Ann Kongsi’s management committee, while Ngee Ann Kongsi’s director is part of the Huay Kuan management committee.13

Wider Teochew networks
In 1934, the Huay Kuan expanded their network connections to include the Teochews in Malaya and formed the Federated Hang Kang Associations of Malaya (马来亚韩江公会联合会). Today, it is known as Federated Teochew Associations of Malaysia (马来西亚潮州公会联合会), which includes the Teochew associations from Johor, Melaka, Penang, Perak and Selangor.14 Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan was elected as the federation’s chair in 1936, 1941, 1948, 1955 and 1963. After Singapore’s independence in 1965, it became an honorary member.15

In 1981, the Huay Kuan joined the Overseas Teochew Associations Friendship Network (海外潮团联谊年会) with the aim of establishing ties, strengthening relationship and promoting business opportunities among overseas Teochews through a biennial convention hosted by different countries on a rotational basis. In 2013, the network was renamed Teochew International Federation (国际潮团总会).16 Singapore hosted the convention in 198717 and 2003.18

Teochew Building
After the Second World War, the Huay Kuan owned nine properties, including the shophouses at numbers 73, 75, 83, 85 and 85A to 85I and 87 at Tank Road, and Tuan Mong School’s premises at 97 Tank Road.19 Tuan Mong School had been established by the Teochew leaders in 1906 at a rented house at 52 Seah Street. The school shifted to 97 Tank Road in 1918. The school’s board of directors then were from both the Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan and Ngee Ann Kongsi.20

In 1930, the Huay Kuan moved from Tuan Mong School at 97 Tank Road to set up office together with Ngee Ann Kongsi near the Yueh Hai Ching Temple at 16 Church Street. At the 12th Huay Kuan Board of Directors’ meeting in 1953, because directors of the two organisations held positions in the Huay Kuan, Ngee Ann Kongsi, Tuan Mong School’s board of directors and the trustees for the properties, a decision was made to let Ngee Ann Kongsi take charge of the Tank Road properties owned by the Huay Kuan. It was also decided that the Huay Kuan would construct a four-storey building to house the offices of the Huay Kuan and Ngee Ann Kongsi as well as the expanded Tuan Mong School to cater to the postwar baby-boom children.21

When the Tank Road building was completed in 1963, both organisations and Tuan Mong School moved into the new premises.22 The Peking-style building accommodated the Huay Kuan and Ngee Ann Kongsi on the ground floor, and Tuan Mong High School on three upper floors, with 45 classrooms for some 4,000 students. The second floor had a large hall with a stage capacity of up to 1,000 persons.23

Activities
The Teochew community is the second-largest Chinese dialect group in Singapore after the Hokkiens, and the Huay Kuan was one of the seven largest clan associations in Singapore that formed the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations in 1985.24 Over the years, the Huay Kuan has organised a broad range of activities including traditional festival celebrations; classes that promote Chinese culture, such as calligraphy and Teochew language lessons; talks; art exhibitions; fund-raising events; and overseas tours to visit their counterparts.25 In 2002, the Huay Kuan was involved in a six-month exhibition held at the National Museum of Singapore, titled “The Teochew Experience: An Exhibition on the Teochew Community in Singapore”.26

The Huay Kuan’s Cultural and Educational Centre was set up in 1983 in response to the changing trends among clan associations focusing more on promoting culture, and educational and recreational activities.27 Performance groups were also formed over the years: Young People’s Theatre Company, a Teochew orchestra, dragon and lion dance troupes and a male choir.28

In support of Singapore’s Chinese literary arts, the Huay Kuan sponsored the publication of four Chinese-language art and literary books in 1985.29 It was lauded as the clan association with the most publications in 1989.30

In 2016, the Huay Kuan launched the biennial Teochew Entrepreneur Award, which aims to “honour the achievements of Teochew businesses, and recognise their contributions to the community”.31 It was the first such award organised by a clan association. In 2018, it was renamed ASEAN Teochew Entrepreneur Award and expanded to include Teochew entrepreneurs from ASEAN countries. The award led to the formation of the Teochew Entrepreneur Club, which facilitates cultural exchanges and business opportunities among the Teochew businessmen and organisations.32

The Huay Kuan also organised major events such as Teochew Week (潮州周) for three consecutive years in 1992, 1993 and 1994.33 The inaugural biennial Teochew Festival (潮州节) was organised in 2014 to promote Teochew food and culture, popularising the slogan “Teochew people, my own people”.34 A second edition of the festival was held in 2016, followed by a third one in 2021.35

Disputes with Ngee Ann Kongsi
According to the 2012 General Assembly Report of the Poit Ip Huay Kuan, tensions between Ngee Ann Kongsi and the Huay Kuan arose in 2007 when Ngee Ann Kongsi changed its constitution to reduce the number of Poit Ip Huay Kuan representatives in their management committee from three members to one, without notifying the Huay Kuan.36 In addition, Ngee Ann Kongsi withdrew the annual S$100,000 grant for the Huay Kuan’s activities, and required Huay Kuan expenditure to be approved on a case-by-case basis.37

Tensions escalated in 2012 when a new Singapore Teochew Federation (新加坡潮州总会) was formed.38 Its founding members included the president, vice-president and honorary treasurer from the Ngee Ann Kongsi management committee.39 While the federation argued that its main role was to promote business networks, the Huay Kuan’s then president, Goh Nam Siang, explained at a press conference that “setting up of the federation could create misunderstanding and division in the Teochew community,” and that there were conflicts of interests as the Huay Kuan had similarly been fostering business opportunities among local and overseas Teochews.40 The Huay Kuan also noted that the new federation’s objectives – “to promote, foster and encourage better and closer relationship, coordination, cooperation and understanding among the Teochews from the 11 Teochew districts of China residing in Singapore” – appear to be similar to the Huay Kuan’s.41 It called for the federation to change its Chinese name and constitution to focus on business, but to no avail.42

In June 2017, Ngee Ann Kongsi gave notice to Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan to vacate its office space at the Teochew Building, as the Kongsi intended to redevelop the building. Despite multiple rounds of negotiation, talks between both organisations broke down.43 This became a prolonged legal case, and the open court trial was held on 30 October 2019.44 On 30 September 2021, the two Teochew associations reached a settlement agreement.45

Major milestones
1929: Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan officially registered.
1934: Formation of the Federated Teochew Associations of Malaya (later renamed Federated Teochew Associations of Malaysia).
1963: Office set up in Teochew Building.
1965: Becomes honorary member of the Federated Teochew Associations of Malaysia.
1981: Joins Overseas Teochew Associations Friendship Network (later renamed Teochew International Federation).
1984: Establishment of Cultural Educational Centre.
1985: One of the founding clans of the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations.
1992: Launches inaugural Teochew Week.
2014: Launches inaugural biennial Teochew Festival.
2016: Inaugurates the biennial Teochew Entrepreneur Award (later renamed ASEAN Teochew Entrepreneur Award).

Presidents and chairmen46
1929–30: Lim Nee Soon (林义顺)
1931, 1933–34, 1937–38, 1947–48, 1951–52, 1961–62: Yeo Chan Boon (杨缵文)
1932, 1935–36, 1941–42, 1949–50, 1953–54, 1957–58: Lee Wee Nam (李伟南)
1939–40: Chen Zhenxian (陈振贤)
1955–56, 1965–66: Tan Siak Kew (陈锡九)
1959–60: Teo Hang Sam (张汉三)
1963–64, 1967–68, 1971–72: Ng See Thong (黄诗通)
1960–70, 1973–74, 1979–80, 1983–84: Yeo Siew Hua (杨绍和)
1975–76, 1981–82, 1985–86: Teo Soo Chuan (张泗川)
1977–78: Chew Teng How (周镇豪)
1987–88: Lim Kee Ming (林继民)
1989–90: Yeo Khee Lim (杨启霖)
1991–92, 1995–96: Teo Chiang Long (张昌隆)
1993–94: Sun Bangshun (孙榜顺)
1997–2000: Kho Teng Kwee (许登科)
2001–2004: Huang Jicheng (黄吉成)
2005–2006: Tan Kien Lip (陈健立)
2009–12: Goh Nam Siang (吴南祥)
2013–16: Quek Meng Tong (郭明忠)
2017–18: Chua Kee Teang (蔡纪典)
2019–20, 2021–22: Chan Kian Kuan (曾建权)



Author
Ang Seow Leng



References
1. “Chaozhou ba yi huiguan jianjie” 潮州八邑会馆简介 [About Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan], http://teochew.sg/关于会馆/, accessed November 2022.
2. “Xintuo cishan jigou yi an gongsi” 信托慈善机构義安公司 [Philanthropic foundation Ngee Ann Kongsi], in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian ji qingzhu xinjiapo kai bu bai wushi zhounian tekan, 1819–1929 新加坡潮州八邑会馆四十周年纪念暨庆祝新加坡开埠百五十周年特刊, 1819–1929 [Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan: The 40th Anniversary of Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan in Singapore and celebrating 150th anniversary of the founding of Singapore, 1819–1929] (Singapore: Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, 1969), 205. (Call no. RSING q369.25957 XJP)
3. Ching-Hwang Yen, Ethnicities, Personalities and Politics in the Ethnic Chinese Worlds (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2017), 51. (Call no. RSING 305.8951 YAN)
4. “Xintuo cishan jigou yi an gongsi” in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian, 205.
5. Yen, Ethnicities, Personalities and Politics, 79.
6. [6] “Xintuo cishan jigou yi an gongsi” in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian, 205.
7. Yen, Ethnicities, Personalities and Politics, 83.
8. “Dai you” 代邮 [Postage] Nanyang Siang Pau 南洋商报, 29 December 1929, 4 (From NewspaperSG); Yen, Ethnicities, Personalities and Politics, 125.
9. Pan Xingnong 潘醒农, “Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan chuangban shi” 新加坡潮州八邑会馆创办史 [The founding history of Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan] in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian,166.
10. Leong Weng Kam, “‘New Face’ of Teochew Entrepreneurs at Inaugural Awards,” Straits Times, 27 June 2016. (From Newslink via NLB’s eResources website)
11. “Chaozhou ba yi huiguan jianjie” 潮州八邑会馆简介 [About Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan], http://teochew.sg/关于会馆/, accessed November 2022.
12. Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan Constitution, 2016, article 2.
13. “Yang zuan wen xiansheng zhi ben hui guan ji yi an gongsi quanti dongshi shu” 杨缵文先生致本会馆及義安公司全体董事书 [Letter to all directors of the Association and Ngee Ann Kongsi from Yeo Chan Boon] in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian, 164.
14. “Ma chao lian hui jian shi” 马潮联会简史 [History of Federated Teochew Associations of Malaysia], Sin Chew Jit Poh星洲日报, 17 August 1976, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
15. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai: Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan 90 zhounian jinian tekan携手·传承·创未来: 新加坡潮州八邑会馆90周年纪念特刊 [Passing on values, shaping the future together: Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan 90th anniversary commemorative publication] (Singapore: Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, 2019), 12. (Call no. RSING 369.25957 PAS)
16. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 12.
17. Teochew Clans Get Together,” Straits Times, 16 November 1987, 4; “A Worldwide Gathering of Teochews,” Straits Times, 19 November 1987, 14; Michael Lim, “When Teochew Eyes Were Smiling,” Straits Times, 22 November 1987, 14. (From NewspaperSG)
18. Laurel Teo, “Teochew Meet Stresses Need To Stay Rooted Culturally,” Straits Times, 23 November 2003, 4; Lee Hsien Loong, “Teochews Can Take Pride in Successes,” Straits Times, 24 November 2003, 14. (From NewspaperSG)
19. “Yang zuan wen xiansheng zhi ben hui guan ji yi an gongsi quanti dongshi shu” 杨缵文先生致本会馆及義安公司全体董事书 [Letter to all directors of the Association and Ngee Ann Kongsi from Yeo Chan Boon] in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian, 164; Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 116.
20. Yan Mengda严孟达, “Bayi jiushi nian”八邑九十年 [90 years of the Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan] in Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 111.
21. Yan Mengda严孟达, “Bayi jiushi nian”八邑九十年 [90 years of the Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan] in Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 117; “Yang zuan wen xiansheng zhi ben hui guan ji yi an gongsi quanti dongshi shu” 杨缵文先生致本会馆及義安公司全体董事书 [Letter to all directors of the Association and Ngee Ann Kongsi from Yeo Chan Boon]  in Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xinjiapo chaozhou ba yi huiguan sishi zhounian jinian, 164.
22. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, “Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan” in Lin Wendan 林文丹and Feng Qinglian 冯清莲(ed), Xinjiapo zong xiang huiguan shi lue 新加坡宗乡会馆史略 [History of clan associations in Singapore], vol. 1 (Singapore: Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations, 2005), 200. (Call no. RSING q369.25957 HIS)
23. “Work on Million-Dollar Teochew Building Begins: It’ll Hold School for 4,000,” Singapore Free Press, 16 June 1961, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
24. “Qi da huiguan faqi zong xiang huiguan lianhe zong hui chengli” 七大会馆发起 宗乡会馆联合总会成立 [At the initiative of the seven associations, the Federation of Clan Associations was established], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 12 December 1985, 1. (From NewspaperSG)
25. “Chaozhou ba yi huiguan yu chaoyang huiguan ban shufa ban” 潮州八邑会馆与潮阳会馆办书法班 [Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan and Teo Yeonh Huai Kuan opens calligraphy classes], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 27 July 2000, 9; “Chaozhou bayi huiguan ban chuji chao yu ban” 潮州八邑会馆办初级潮语班 [Beginner Teochew language class organised by Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 23 June 2003, 9. (From NewspaperSG); “Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan” in Lin and Feng, Xinjiapo zong xiang huiguan shi lue, 201–2.
26. “Lao zhaopian, jiangyou gang shushuo de gushi” 老照片,酱油缸述说的故事 [Stories from old photographs and soy sauce urns], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 26 April 2002, 12; “Chaozhou wenhua zhan ge fang nuli jie shuoguo” 潮州文化展 各方努力结硕果 [The efforts of all parties in the Teochew cultural exhibition have yielded fruitful results – how about: Fruitful results from the efforts of all parties in the Teochew cultural exhibition], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 30 September 2002, 27. (From NewspaperSG)
27. “Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan” in Lin and Feng, Xinjiapo zong xiang huiguan shi lue, 200; “Cultural Centre Set Up by Clan Group,” Straits Times, 27 May 1984, 16. (From NewspaperSG)
28. “Chaozhou ba yi hui guan chengli shao'er jutuan” 潮州八邑会馆成立少儿剧团 [Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan establishes a children's theatre troupe], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 18 November 1993, 15; “New Troupe Debuts Tonight,” Straits Times, 8 September 1995, 22; “Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan” in Lin and Feng, Xinjiapo zong xiang huiguan shi lue, 201; “Chaozhou ba yi huiguan chengli nansheng xiaozu hechang tuan” 潮州八邑会馆成立男声小组合唱团 [Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan established a  male choir], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 18 September 2000, 11. (From NewspaperSG)
29. “Clan To Give Boost to S’pore Authors,” Straits Times, 22 July 1985, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
30. “Chuban congshu zuiduo de hui guan” 出版丛书最多的会馆 [The clan association that publishes the most series of books], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 1 October 1989, 37. (From NewspaperSG)
31. Yuen Sin, “New Award Recognises Teochew Entrepreneurs in ASEAN,” Straits Times, 5 November 2018. (From Newslink via NLB’s eResources website)
32. Yuen, “New Award.”
33. “Chaozhou zhou 17 ri qi juxing” 潮州周17日起举行 [Teochew week will be held from the 17th], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 9 February 1992, 8; Huang Cuiqian 黄翠倩 “Chaozhou zhou yiyi shenchang” 潮州周意义深长 [Teochew week is meaningful], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 14 February 1993, 2 (From NewspaperSG); “Chaozhou zhou” kaimu jinnian zhongdian jiemu xinshang chaozhou di fang quyi” “潮州周”开幕 今年重点节目欣赏潮州地方曲艺 ["Teochew week" opening this year's key program to appreciate Teochew local folk art], Lianhe Zaobao 联合早报, 20 September 1994, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
34. Teo Chee Hean, “The Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan 45th Board Installation Ceremony,” speech, Singapore Chinese Cultural Centre, 20 April 2019.
35. Chao Zhoujie 潮州节 [Teochew Festival] in Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 157–63; Ng Wei Kai, "Teochew Festival Moves into Virtual Village with Beauty Pageant and over 100 Hours of Opera," Straits Times, 5 November 2021, https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/community/teochew-festival-moves-into-virtual-village-with-beauty-pageant-and-over-100
36. Ngee Ann Kongsi (Incorporation) Ordinance, Cap 370, Government Gazette. Acts Supplement, 874. (Call no. RSING 348.5957 SGGAS)
37. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, "2012 Niandu baogao shu" 2012 年度报告书 [2012 Annual report], 9.
38. Lin Zhaowei, “New Teochew Federation Elects Council,” Straits Times, 25 April 2012, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
39. Huang Lijie, “Tiff over New Teochew Federation,” Straits Times, 2 February 2012, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
40. Huang Lijie, “Tension between Clan Bodies Brewing for Years,” Straits Times, 7 February 2012, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
41. Terence Tan, “Storm in a Bowl of Teochew Porridge,” Straits Times, 19 February 2012, 41. (From NewspaperSG)
42. Cheryl Ong, “Teochew Clans Still in Dispute over Name,” Straits Times, 2 May 2012, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
43. Tee Zhuo, K.C. Vijayan and Yuen Sin, “Teochew-v-Teochew Spat to be Heard in Open Court,” Straits Times, 1 November 2019; Tan Tam Mei, “Two Teochew associations Feud over Tank Road Building,” New Paper, 25 February 2019.
44. Tee, Vijayan and Yuen, “Teochew-v-Teochew Spat”; Tee Zhuo, “Teochew Building Dispute Goes to Open Trial after Apex Court Dismisses Ngee Ann Kongsi’s Appeal,” Straits Times, 5 May 2020.
45. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay, "2021 Niandu baogao shu" 2021 年度报告书 [2021 Annual report], 23; Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, "2022 Niandu baogao shu" 2022 年度报告书 [2022 annual report], 11–12.
46. Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, Xieshou chuancheng chuang weilai, 4–5; Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay, "2021 Niandu baogao shu" 2021 年度报告书 [2021 Annual report], 22.



The information in this article is valid as of December 2022 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.


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