sports injuries


Sports injuries are injuries that are sustained as a direct result of engaging in sports activities or exercises. There are many causes of sports injuries. For instance, improper workout techniques, lack of physical conditioning, wrong usage of sports equipment, ill-fitting sports equipment, not wearing safety equipment, accidents, overtraining or insufficient warm up and stretching. Some of the common types of sports injuries include muscle sprains and strains, abrasions and contusions, ligament tears, dislocation of joints and fractures. Surveys have shown that body contact sports like rugby and wrestling tend to produce the most number of sports injuries, followed by ball or racquet sports such as basketball and squash and high impact exercises such as running and aerobics.

While no one can anticipate accidents or collisions with another player or equipment during a sports activity, most sports injuries can easily be prevented if one adopts a sensible exercise routine, obeys the doctor’s instructions for people on medication, remembers to do a slow proper warm up before every exercise and does not forget to do a cool down stretch at the end. Other preventive measures include slow and incremental physical conditioning, adopting a proper form when exercising, using the right sports equipment such as footwear that is suited for the individual’s needs and allowing for sufficient rest and recovery.

Sports medical professionals usually advise the R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression and elevation) recipe as the first response to non-critical sports injuries. More severe cases may require medication, rehabilitation through several weeks of physiotherapy or even surgery as a last resort. A small percentage of injured athletes may also need to stop all physical activities for some time or take up an alternative sport altogether to prevent further aggravation or recurrence of the injury.

This resource guide helps you locate resources on sports injuries available at the National Library Board Singapore libraries as well as on the Internet.


Search Terms Call Number
Sports injuries; sports injury treatment; sports injuries prevention; athletic injuries therapy; sports medicine 617.1027
Athletic Injuries therapy; athletic Injuries rehabilitation; Athletic Injuries diagnosis 617.1027
Sports massage; massage therapy; sports physical therapy 613.71; 615.822; 617.1027




  • Arvinen-Barrow, M. & Walker, N. (Eds.). (2013). The psychology of sport injury and rehabilitation. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 PSY
    This book emphasises the application of practical psychology techniques to enhance the athlete’s recovery from injury and the rehabilitation process. Case studies are also provided in each chapter.


  • Brandon, L. (2011). Anatomy of sports injuries: For fitness and rehabilitation. London: New Holland.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 BRA
    Brandon helps the reader to understand the root causes of sports injuries and the best remedies for them. Includes 80 full-colour anatomical illustrations on strength training exercises usually prescribed for a range of common sports injuries.


  • British Medical Association. (2010). The BMA guide to sports injuries. London: Dorling Kindersley.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 BMA
    This useful illustrated sports injury manual published by the British Medical Association provides authoritative and medically-sanctioned information on injury diagnosis, treatment and long-term injury management.


  • Brukner, A. & Khan, K. (2007) . Clinical Sports Medicine. North Ryde, N.S.W. : McGraw-Hill.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 BRU
    This is an authoritative reference for sports doctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists involved in diagnosing and treating patients inflicted with different types of sports injuries. Includes handy ‘Patient Information Sheets’ for both common and rare sports injuries.


  • Elphinston, J. (2008).  Stability, sport, and performance movement. Chichester, U.K.: Lotus Pub.; Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 AND
    Using case studies and examples, Elphinston explains how the four different elements – sporting movement efficiency, stability, symmetry and balance – work together to help athletes in injury prevention and serves to help them achieve their full physical potential.


  • Evaes, T. (2010). The practical guide to athletic training. Sudbury, Mass.; Singapore: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 EAV
    This practical guide explains how to assess and treat sports injuries and how to prescribe the correct therapy for injuries that occur to specific parts of the body, such as the lower and upper limbs, the torso and the head.


  • Flegel, M. J. (2008). Sport first aid. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 FLE
    Written for sports coaches, this book deals with guidelines for coaches in athletic health care management and details basic emergency procedures and treatments for handling varied types of sports injuries.


  • Houglum, P. A. (2010). Therapeutic exercise for musculoskeletal injuries. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Call no.: R 615.82 HOU
    This handbook gives a comprehensive coverage of the concepts of sports injury rehabilitation and details the various equipment and therapeutic exercises available to manage area-specific injuries.


  • MacAuley, D. & Best, T. M. (Eds.). (2007).  Evidence-based sports medicine. Malden, Mass.; Oxford: BMJ Books/Blackwell Pub.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 EVI
    This second edition is an invaluable reference tool for sports doctors, general practitioners and orthopedic surgeons. It covers injuries to specific parts of the body, injury prevention and treatment techniques.


  • Pfeiffer, R,. et al. (2009). Sports first aid and injury prevention. Sudbury, Mass.; Singapore: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
    Call no.: R 617.1027 SPO
    This book offers an introduction to identifying sport-related illnesses, treatments available for different types of injuries and prevention strategies.




  • Yip, K. (2011). Dr Kevin Yip presents lecture on common causes and treatment for knee problems [videorecording]. Singapore: Singapore Sports and Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Call no.: RSING 616.7062 YIP
    This item is a video disc which features a public lecture given by orthopaedic surgeon, Dr Kevin Yip, on common orthopaedic problems that affect the knees, back and shoulder. It also contains an interview with Mr Chan Meng Hui, aged 81 years, a veteran marathoner, who shares his experience on remaining injury-free while engaging in long distance running.




  • Adams, B. J. (2014, November/ December). Prevention and Treatment for Sports Overuse Injuries. Rehab Management: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Rehabilitation, 27(9), 8-10. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    This article discusses how different injuries can arise from different types of sports and recommends educating athletes on injury prevention such as the use of equipment to lower the occurrence of injuries.


  • Brown, M. (2015, April). Sports Injury Prevention. Modern Athlete & Coach, 53(2), 41-43. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    Brown debates if flexibility training is integral in sports injury prevention programmes and discusses whether increased flexibility or improved muscle strength will help in reducing the incidence of sports injury.


  • Danos, T. S. (2012, January/ February). Spring into Sports: Guiding the Weekend Warrior. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Rehabilitation, 25(1), 10. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    The article focuses on proper training techniques of weekend and recreational athletes for injury prevention and discusses treatment therapies available for sports injuries.


  • Fields, K. B., Sykes, J. C., Walker, K. M. & Jackson, J. C. (2010, May/ June). Prevention of Running Injuries. Current Sports Medicine Reports (American College of Sports Medicine), 9(3), 176. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus.
    This article reviews the factors that affect running injuries, such as training volume, strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes.


  • Georgilopoulos, P. (2012, January). Low Back Injuries. Modern Athlete & Coach, 50(1), 18. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    The author discusses the different types and manifestations of low back injuries and suggests ways to avoid incurring as well as aggravating the condition.



  • Koh, F. (2012, February 24). Still a hotshot at 87. The New Paper. Retrieved from Factiva.
    Profiles the founder of Tiong Bahru Joggers club, Tan Kok Sing, 87, and the vigorous weekly exercise regime that this group of seniors faithfully adhere to.


  • Loria, K. (2011, November). PTs Help Runners Go for Gold. PT in Motion, 3(10), 24. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    This article highlights the value of physical therapy such as performing core exercises, planks and squats for runners to achieve their best performances.


  • McHugh, M. P. & Cosgrave, C. H. (2010, April). To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(2),169. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    This article discusses the pros and cons of stretching before exercise, advantages of establishing a regular stretching routine, its effectiveness in both enhancing the performance of athletes as well as its benefits in prevention of injuries.


  • More young osteoarthritis patients. (2012, November 1). Mind Your Body. Retrieved from Factiva.
    Doctors are seeing an upward trend in the number of young patients suffering from osteoarthritis. The reason for this is “because more people are exercising and they are exercising too hard or infrequently, both of which are hard on the joints.” Greater interest in long-distance running in recent years has also contributed to higher incidence of this disease among young people.


  • Ng, J. Y. (2010, December 22). More measures for safer sports. Today. Retrieved from Factiva.
    The Committee on Safety in School Sports (CSSS) recommends that teachers in charge of extra-curricular activities (ECAs) undergo courses on safety training and be certified with first aid skills.


  • Power Play. (2015, February 5). Mind Your Body. Retrieved from Factiva.
    This article highlights several unconventional fitness programmes that are specially catered for children. Common sports injuries that children can sustain are also highlighted towards the end of the article as well as some recommended steps that parents can take to avoid risk of injury for their active children.


  • Schools get easy-to-use sports-safety manual. (2012, January 18). My Paper. Retrieved from Factiva.
    A newly launched guidebook, Sports Safety and Injury Prevention Manual, will help physical education and sports teachers to beef up their knowledge of sporting safety.


  • Tan Tock Seng Hospital, NAC partner to tackle dance-related injuries. (2014, December 13). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva.
    A series of dance medicine workshops targeted at dance and healthcare professionals are being piloted as a result of a joint collaboration between Tan Tock Seng Hospital and the National Arts Council. The workshops will cover identification and treatment of dance injuries.


  • Theisen, D., et al. (2014). Injuries in Youth Sports: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Prevention. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 65(9), 248-252. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus. 
    This article focuses on injury incidence in youth sports. Studies show that injuries are higher in team sports compared to individual sports. Sports injury prevention should encompass surveillance, identifying risk factors, implementing preventive strategies and thereafter evaluating their effectiveness.


  • Verhagen, E. A. L. M., van Stralen, M. M. & van Mechelen, W. (2010). Behaviour, the Key Factor for Sports Injury Prevention. Sports Medicine, 40(11), 899. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from EBSCOHost SportDiscus.
    This article provides an overview of the relationship between the behaviour of the athlete, coach, referee, physical therapist or sports associations and sports injury risks.


  • Yoga can lead to hip injuries in women. (2013, November 21). My Paper. Retrieved from Factiva.
    Experts caution that yoga may result in hip injuries, particularly for women, as some yoga postures demand that the hips be manoeuvred into extreme positions.




  • (2016). Sports Pain and Injuries. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the website:
    A useful website that provides articles and resources on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of sports injuries.


  • American College of Sports Medicine. (2016). Public Information – All topics. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the American College of Sports Medicine website:
    Contains news, fact sheets, brochures and articles on sports safety and injury prevention. Also includes links to resources on exercise, chronic diseases, nutrition, weightloss and workplace wellness.


  • Dr Pribut’s Running Injuries. (2015, September 20). Sports Medicine Index. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the Dr Pribut’s Running Injuries website:
    A useful one-stop information and resource portal for everything you need to know about running related injuries, including tips on how to avoid injuries.


  • MedlinePlus. (2016, January 11). Sports Injuries. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the MedlinePlus website:
    An authoritative guide to different types of sports injuries for children, youths and adults, prevention and treatments methods as well as links to research and clinical trial studies.


  • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. (2014, November). What are Sports Injuries? Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website:
    This fact sheet (available for download as PDF or as an audio file) gives an overall introduction to sports injuries, including prevention and treatment tips. It includes links to citations of journal articles on sports injuries, some of which provide free access.


  • Sports Injury Clinic. (2014). Home. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the Sports Injury Clinic website:
    Contains a wealth of information on over 300 types of sports injuries, rehabilitation exercises and treatment therapies. Also includes interviews with top sports injury professionals on their areas of specialisation.


  • Sport Singapore. (2016, January 22). Sports Safety. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the Singapore Sports Council website:
    The Sports Safety Working Committee aims to promote sport safety in Singapore. Contains a link to the report on the ‘Overview and Recommendations for Sports Safety in Singapore’ by the Sports Safety Committee and information on staying safe while engaging in indoor and outdoor physical activities.


  • WebMD. (2016). Sports Injuries A-Z. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from the WebMD website:
    Common sports injuries are listed alphabetically, enabling visitors to zoom in quickly to the required information. Also includes links to a medical reference, videos, slideshows and health assessment tools.


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Sharon Teng


The information in this resource guide is valid as at Feb 2017 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history on the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

All Rights Reserved. National Library Board Singapore 2017.

Written by Sharon Teng