Angkor Wat


Angkor Wat, with its sheer size and complex architecture, is one of the most well-known monuments in Cambodia. Located north of Siem Reap and south of Angkor Thom, the construction began within the first half of the 12th century during the reign of King Suryavarman II. This was the zenith of cultural, religious and artistic development of the Khmer civilisation. The construction took an estimated 30 years to complete. Like most temples built during the Khmer empire, Angkor Wat began as a Hindu temple.

Some of the key features that have been widely studied by scholars include the West-facing orientation of Angkor Wat, historical and mythical narratives in the bas-reliefs and the engineering complexity of the massive monument. Some studies have speculated that the West-facing direction of Angkor Wat suggests a funerary monument for its founder, but other scholars have proposed that that it was a dedication the Hindu god, Vishnu, who is sometimes associated with the west. The western part of the south gallery depicts the army of Suryavarman II, including troops from Siam. The king is presented much larger than other personages in this historical narrative on the bas-relief. Hundreds of apsaras (divine nymphs) carvings depicting a variety of attitudes and dress offer insight to the Khmer civilization as well. Angkor Wat is a prime example of the temple-mountain concept. It was constructed in the image of Mount Meru, the sacred mountain in Hindu mythology. The central tower, rising 65 metres above the ground, symbolizes the central peak of Mount Meru and the four supporting towers represent the four surrounding peaks.

With a north-south axis that runs 1,300 metres and 1,500 metres on the east-west axis, it stands as one of the largest religious foundations in the world. In 1992, Angkor Wat was designated as a World Heritage site by UNESCO.

Search Terms Call Number
 Art – Cambodia, Khmer  709.596
 Architecture – Khmer  722.409596
 Relief (Sculpture) – Khmer  732.409596
 History – Cambodia (Khmer Republic, Kampuchea)  959.6


Books on Arts & Architecture

(listed in alphabetical order)

  • Bhandari, C. M. (1995). Saving Angkor. Bangkok: White Orchid Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 722.409596 BHA
    Bhandari chronicles the restoration efforts of Angkor and discusses the significance of this site.


  • Brukoff, B. & Jessup, H. (2011). Temples of Cambodia: the heart of Angkor. New York: Vendome Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 726.14551209596 BRU
    Written by one of the leading Khmer cultural historians, Helen Jessup, Temples of Cambodia details historical insights on the empire and architecture.


  • Bunker, E. C. & Latchford, D. (2011). Khmer bronzes: new interpretations of the past. Chicago: Art Media Resources.
    Call no.: RSEA 739.51209596 BUN
    This publication studies the range of Khmer bronze images from a chronological perspective. Included in the discussions are the Angkor Wat period and the “golden age” of Khmer bronzes.


  • Burgess, J. (2013). A woman of Angkor. Bangkok:River Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 813.6 BUR
    In this historical fiction, Burgess sets his tale in 12th century Cambodia, where a young woman, Sray witness the rites and rituals of the Angkor civilisation and the construction of Angkor Wat.



  • Coedes, G. (1963). Angkor: an introduction (Gardiner, E. F. Trans.). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
    Call no.: RDET 722.409596 COE
    In this book, Coedes provides a historical, social and religious context to the Cambodian monuments.


  • Cort, L. A. & Jett, P. (Eds.) (2010). Gods of Angkor: bronzes from the National Museum of Cambodia. Chiang Mai, Thailand : Silkworm Books ; Washington, D.C. : Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution ; Seattle : University of Washington Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 739.51209596 GOD
    Published on the occasion of the exhibitions on Cambodia’s bronze sculpture and casting, the book include essays on Angkorian metalwork in the temple setting.


  • Fay, K. (2012). The map of lost memories. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Call no.: English FAY (Available only at Public Libraries)
    This fictional book traces the journey of a curator in search of the lost scrolls that will uncover the history of Cambodia’s ancient Khmer civilisation.


  • Florian, H. & Kuhl, I. (2015). The buildings that revolutionized architecture (Michael, J. Trans.). New York: Prestel Verlag.
    Call no.: ENGLISH 720.9 HEI (Available only at Public Libraries)
    Angkor Wat is among this compilation of 100 man-made structures that revolutionised architecture.



  • Heng, S. T. et al. (2015). The adopted: stories from Angkor. Singapore : Ethos Books, 2015
    Call no.: RSING S823 HEN
    This collection of short stories by 4 Singaporean writers was borne out of a creative trip to Cambodia.


  • Izu, K. & Jessup, H. I. (2003). Passage to Angkor. Santa Fe: Channel Photographics; Gardena, CA: Distributed by SCB Distributors.
    Call no.: RART 779.4596 IZU
    This creative publication features Kenro Izu’s stunning photographs of Angkor alongside Hellen Jessup’s poems.


  • Jessup, H. I. (2004). Art & architecture of Cambodia. London; New York, N.Y.: Thames & Hudson.
    Call no.: RART 720.95960901 JES
    A comprehensive book on the art and architecture of Cambodia, beginning with the prehistory and origins of the Khmer people to the evolution of Angkor in the 10th century and the height of the empire with the building of Angkor Wat.


  • Jessup, H. I. & Zephir, T. (eds.). (1997). Sculpture of Angkor and ancient Cambodia: millennium of glory. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.
    Call no.: RART q732.4074753 SCU
    This publication looks into the Khmer civilisation that thrived in mainland Southeast Asia between 600 and 1600 AD and reached its zenith with the construction of Angkor Wat. Sculpture of Angkor unpacks the iconography, architecture and symbolism.


  • Kapur, P. K. & Sahai, S. (2007). Ta Prohm: a glorious era in Angkor civlization. Bangkok : White Lotus Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 722.409596 KAP
    A comprehensive and detailed book on the royal history of Angkor, restoration work and Angkor art.


  • Kerlogue, F. (2004). Arts of Southeast Asia. London: Thames & Hudson.
    Call no.: RSING 700.959 KER
    Kerlogue expounds on the indigenous beliefs and world religions in the artistic expressions of Southeast Asia. Included in this book is a study of the temples of Angkor.


  • Legendre-De Koninck, H. (2001). Angkor Wat: a royal temple. Weimar : VDG.
    Call no.: RART 722.409596 LEG
    This book provides an interpretation of Angkor Wat, with specific focus on the sculpture, the symmetrical and dis-symmetrical positioning of the components in the temple and the significance of the western orientation that is unusual within the Angkorian context.


  • Loviny, C. (2003). The apsaras of Angkor. (Kanharith, K. & Chheang, S. H. M. (Trans.). Phnom Penh: SIPAR.
    Call no.: RSEA Others 793.319596 LOV
    While this book is published in Khmer, English captions accompany the photographs taken by photojournalist, Christophe Loviny.


  • Maxwell, T. S. & Poncar, J. (2006). Of gods, kings, and men: the reliefs of Angkor Wat. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books.
    Call no.: RART 732.409596 MAX
    Dedicated to the study of the Angkor Wat reliefs, Maxwell’s book details the various narratives contained in the reliefs and provides an overview on how to sequentially view the reliefs in this massive temple complex.


  • Mo, G. (2014). Angkor temples in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: (publisher not identified).
    Call no.: RSEA 779.99596 GRE
    In Angkor Temples, photographer Greg Mo shoots not only the impressive Angkor Wat, but the surrounding monuments such as the Bayon, Ta Prohm and Banteay Srei in Cambodia.


  • Myrdal, J. & Kessle, G. (1970). Angkor: an essay on art and imperialism. (Austin, P. B. Trans.). New York: Pantheon Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 722.409596 MYR
    This book highlights not just the history of Angkor Wat, but also analyses the West’s reaction to, and reception of, Angkor.


  • Parmentier, H. (19-). Henri Parmentier’s guide to Angkor. Phnom-Penh: E.K.L.I.P.
    Call no.: RCLOS 959.6 PAR
    An early 20th century guidebook to Angkor, Parmentier’s publication has been re-printed multiple times for its detailed description and images of Angkor.


  • Phuangdorkmai. S. (1996). An artist at Angkor. Singapore : Raffles Editions.
    Call no.: RSEA 759.9593 SOM
    An Artist at Angkor is a collection of watercolours and sketches by Thai artist, Somboon Phuangdorkmai.


  • Reinhardt, A. (1961). Khmer sculpture. New York: Asia House Gallery.
    Call no.: RCLOS 732.4 KHM (SEA)
    A critical essay on Khmer sculpture is published in this exhibition catalogue by Asia House Gallery. Included in this publication are the partial extracts from Zhou Daguan’s 13th century visit to Angkor.


  • Riboud, M. & Lacouture, J. (1993). Angkor, the serenity of Buddhism. New York: Thames and Hudson.
    Call no.: RART 779.99596 RIB
    French photographer, Marc Riboud, has travelled to Angkor in the late 1960s and the 1990s. In this book, he captures Cambodia before and after the Khmer Rouge regime through his vivid photographs and descriptive essay.



  • Rooney, D. F. (1994). Angkor: an introduction to the temples. Hong Kong : Odyssey.
    Call no.: RART 722.409596 ROO
    A practical guidebook that includes travelling to Angkor temples, a brief introduction to Khmer history and a monument-by-monument guide.


  • Sahai, S. (2007). The Bayon of Angkor Thom. Bangkok, Thailand : White Lotus.
    Call no.: RSEA 722.409596 SAH
    A detailed book on the understanding of the Khmer civilisation and art. With references to scholarly work and epigraphic sources, The Bayon is a well-documented publication on the architecture and history of Angkor.


  • Shors, J. (2013). Temple of a thousand faces. New York: New American Library.
    Call no.: English SHO (Available only at Public Libraries)
    Shors’s historical fiction is set in 12th century Camboda and focuses on two warring kingdoms. Angkor Wat features as a symbolic point of control between the enemies.


  • Stanford, D. (2009). Angkor. London: Frances Lincoln.
    Call no.: RSEA 726.1450956 STA
    More than 150 coloured photographs accompany Stanford’s text on the history and significance of Angkor. Included in this book are images of galleries, pavillions, bas reliefs and inscriptions found in Angkor Wat.



  • Swaan, W. (1966). Lost cities of Asia: Ceylon, Pagan, Angkor. London: Elek, 1966.
    Call no.: RSEA 722.4 SWA
    Swaan provides illustrated accounts of five ancient cities in this book: Anuradhapura, Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa in Ceylon, Pagan in Burma and Angkor in Cambodia.


  • Vittorio, R. & Poncar, J. (2002). Sacred Angkor: the carved reliefs of Angkor Wat. Trumbull, CT : Weatherhill.
    Call no.: RART q732.409596 ROV
    Sacred Angkor focuses on uncovering the meaning behind the hundreds iconographic work of Angkor Wat’s carved reliefs.



Books on History & Culture

(listed in alphabetical order)

  • Albanese, M. (2013). Angkor: splendors of the Khmer civilization. Novara, Italy: White Star Publishers.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 ALB
    Albanese explains the development of the Angkor civilisation’s strongly symbolic art based on archaeological findings. Discussions include the history of Angkor from origins to the 14th century and Khmer cosmology.


  • Auboyer, J. & Darbois, D. (1971). Angkor. Barcelona: Ediciones Polígrafa.
    Call no.: RSEA Others 915.96 AUB -(TRA)
    This multilingual publication on Angkor has text in Spanish, English, French and German.


  • Bandol, S. & Thompson, A. (2006). Looking at Angkor. Cambodia: Reyum Pub.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 SRE
    A collection of 25 drawings of the temples of Angkor, with accompanying explanatory text by Southeast Asian cultural and history specialist Ashley Thompson.


  • Bracken, G. B. (2010). Angkor: sketches of an ancient city. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 BYR
    An informative guidebook to Angkor Wat, which includes text, architectural drawing, sketches and maps. Bracken, an architect, provides colourful sketches and useful descriptions of art, architecture and history of Angkor.


  • Candee, H. C. & Bigham, R. B. (2008). Angkor the magnificent: wonder city of ancient Cambodia. Holmes Beach, FL: DatASIA, Inc.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 CAN
    This new edition of the 1924 travelogue by Helen Candee, includes more than 100 antique illustrations, along with an index and bibliography for easy referencing.



  • Chavanat, D., Creedy, J. S. and Davidson, L. E. (2003). Cambodia & Angkor. Singapore: Archipelago Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 CHA
    A travel sketch book, this book includes colourful illustrations and photographs of architecture and life in Cambodia.


  • Dagens, B. (1995). Angkor: heart of an Asian empire. London: Thames & Hudson.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 DAG
    Unravelling the mysteries of the Angkor ruins, Angkor: heart of an Asian empire, includes documentary photographs, maps, illustrations and images of old tourist advertisements.


  • De Beerski, P. J. (1923). Angkor: ruins in Cambodia. London: G. Richards.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 BEE
    Includes 65 illustrations of Angkor Wat in the early 20th century, based on the author’s 1919 artistic and literary mission to the ruins.



  • DiBasio, J. (2013). The story of Angkor. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 DIB
    With accompanying photographs and maps, The Story of Angkor presents to readers a comprehensive read of the ancient Angkor civilisation.


  • Dickason, D. H. (1939). Wondrous Angkor. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh.
    Call no.: 959.6 DIC -(GBH)
    Published in the 1930s, this provides an early guidebook on travelling to Angkor which includes accommodation, architectural information and language.


  • Education Dept. of Western Australia. (1974). Angkor Wat. Perth: Education Dept. of Western Australia.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 WES
    This book provides a quick introduction to Angkor Wat. Suitable for secondary school learners.


  • Edwards, P. (2007). Cambodge: the cultivation of a nation, 1860-1945. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 EDW
    Covering eight decades of cultural changes, Cambodge provides insightful commentary of Angkor Wat in the context of colonialism and post-colonialism and discusses Cambodian nationalism.



  • Finot, L, Parmentier, H. & Goloubew, V. (2000). A guide to the Temple of Banteay Srei at Angkor. (Stape, J. H. Trans.). Bangkok: White Lotus Press.
    Call no.: RSEA q294.53509596 FIN
    Originally published in 1926, this is the first study of the temple in Angkor Wat. These essays discuss the architecture, history, iconography and inscriptions of the site.


  • Finot, L. & Dieulefils, P. (2001). Ruins of Angkor Cambodia in 1909. Bangkok: River; London: Thames & Hudson.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6030222 FIN
    Dieulefils is a renowned photographer of early 20th century Southeast Asia. The photographs of Angkor in 1909 includes architecture and royal life in Cambodia.


  • Freeman, M. and Jacques, C. (1999). Ancient Angkor. Bangkok: Asia Books; River Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 FRE
    An informative guidebook to the art and architecture of Angkor, the extinct city of Cambodia, includes photographs of the temples and surrounding sites.


  • Grandjean, J.P. (2002). Angkor. Boston: Shambhala; Distributed by Random House.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 GRA
    This photo-essay by Grandjean provides detailed photography of the art and architecture of the architectural gem in the midst of the Cambodian jungle.



  • Highham, C. (2013). The origins of the civilization of Angkor. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.601 HIG
    As part of the Debates in Archaeology series, this book covers the debates surrounding the origins of the Angkor civilisation. Origins is the result of Highham’s research programme on the ancient civilisation.


  • Highham, C. (2013). The civilization of Angkor. London: Phoenix.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.603 HIG
    Higham’s book charts the development of prehistoric communities of the Angkor region from various research on prehistoric archaeology and art history.


  • Ishizawa, Y. (1999). Along the royal roads to Angkor. New York: Weatherhill; London: New Holland.
    Call no.: RSEA q915.96 ISH -(TRA)
    Photographer Yoshiaki Ishizawa captures images of contemporary life of the descendents of ancient Angkor as well as the royal roads connecting the capital of Angkor Thom to the major cities.


  • Jacques, C. and Freeman, M. (1997). Angkor: cities and temples ( White, T. Trans.). London: Thames and Hudson.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 JAC
    This large format book provides detailed reference to the structures of the Angkor temples, along with vivid photographs.


  • Loti, P. (1996). A pilgrimage to Angkor (Baines, W. P. Trans.). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 915.9604 LOT -(TRA)
    Pierre Loti’s 1912 work (previously titled Siam) is translated into English and relates a young naval officer’s enchantment with the temples and reliefs of Angkor, along with the tales of his journey in Phnom Penh and Saigon.


  • Maben A. (Director). (1997). Angkor for sale [videorecording]. [S.l.]: RM Associates; Dist. UTV International.
    Call no.: RAV 959.6 ANG
    Filmed on location in Cambodia and Thailand, this documentary investigates the illegal trade in much-coveted Khmer artifacts and the measures being taken to try to put a stop to it.


  • MacDonald, M. and Loke, W. T. (1987). Angkor and the Khmers. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 MAC
    This is a 1987 edition of Macdonald’s Angkor, filled with 112 photographs taken by both Malcolm Macdonald and Loke Wan Tho.


  • Mannikka, E. (2000). Angkor Wat: time, space, and kingship. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press; Richmond: Curzon.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 MAN
    Curator, Eleanor Mannikka, studies Angkor Wat within 12th century architectural principles of astronomy, cosmology and politics in this publication. This is a detailed study of Angkor Wat including specific measurements and the possible explanations for the precision of these measurements.


  • McCurry, S. (2002). Sanctuary: the temples of Angkor. London: Phaidon.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.600222 MAC
    Over 100 photographs of Angkor Wat, a UNESCO World Heritage site, are captured in this book by globally acclaimed photographer, Steve McCurry.








  • Snellgrove, D. L. (2001). Khmer civilization and Angkor. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 SNE
    An introduction to the history and culture of the Khmer empire, Khmer is a guidebook to the significant monuments of the empire, covering Cambodia and Thailand, including Angkor Wat.




  • Vittorio, R. (1998). Khmer mythology: secrets of Angkor. New York: Weatherhill.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 ROV
    Vittorio’s book charts the hundreds of intricate stone reliefs, depicted Khmer mythology. Highlighted in this book are the Hindu and Buddhist influences on the Khmer empire.


  • Winter, T. (2007). Post-Conflict Heritage, Postcolonial Tourism: Culture, politics and development at Angkor. London: Routledge.
    Call no.: RBUS 338.4791596 WIN
    In this publication, Winter discusses the complexities in the issues of heritage, travel and memory of Angkor Wat. In this book, heritage practitioners and academics will gain insight into this monument’s iconic role in nation-building and local economic development. Based on two years of field work, Winter’s critical examination of Angkor within post-conflict reconstruction is compelling read.




  • Zephir, T. (2004). Angkor: a tour of the monuments. (Osbourne, M. Trans.). Singapore: Archipelago Press.
    Call no.: RSEA q959.6 ZEP
    This first edition of A Tour is a handy guide which introduces the history of Angkor Wat, from its Hindu roots to its mark of Buddhist culture.


  • Zhou, D. (2007). A record of Cambodia: the land and its people. (Harris, P. Trans.). Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books.
    Call no.: RSEA 959.6 ZHO
    This is the English translation of the only first-hand accout of the Angkor civilisation in the 13th century. Zhou Daguan, a Chinese envoy wrote descriptions of the royal palace, sacred buildings, people and everyday life when he visited the empire in 1296 – 1297.


Newspaper Articles

(listed in chronological order)

  • Antiquarian research in Cambodia. (1889, January 5). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    This article reports on an archaelogical mission to Siam and Cambodia by M. Fournereau in December 1887. This mission was carried out under the instruction of the French government.


  • Battambong and Angkor. (1893, October 6). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Originally published in the Bangkok Times, this article includes a brief description of the legendary story of the overthrow of the Empire of Cambodia at Angkor and the eventual desolation of the province.


  • Ancient Cambodia. (1905, May 5). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    This article highlights excerpts from an article by a Colonel Gerini on the Khmer ruins. It includes brief descriptions of a Khmer palace in Angkor Thom and Phnom Ba-kheng.


  • Impressions of travel. Ancient ruins in Cambodia. (1906, April 5). The Straits Times, p.6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Originally published from the South China Morning Post, this article includes a description of a journey into Cambodia, including descriptions of Angkor Wat.


  • The ruins of Angkor. (1909, August 31). The Straits Times, p.8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Reports on the preparations taken prior to opening the famous ruins of Angkor to the tourist world.


  • Siamese antiquities. (1909, December 18). The Straits Times, p.6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Contains excerpts of an article by Charles S. Braddock, on a tour of Angkor. The article is titled, The Older Siam.


  • The Angkor ruins. (1910, August 9). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Includes excerpts from the travel notes of Sir Hugh Clifford, K. C. M. G. Detailed description of the triumph of the beauty and symmetry of Angkor Wat.


  • Temples of a vanished race. (1913, August 18). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Reviews the travel work by Pierre Loti, entitled “Siam”.


  • Garner, C. L. (1914, January 10). On the way to Angkor Wat. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, p.1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    The first part of a three-part travel piece to Cambodia. Includes the route undertaken by the writer and his fellow travellers.


  • Garner, C. L. (1914, January 12). On the way to Angkor Wat. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, p.1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    The second part of a three-part travel piece to Cambodia. Includes the route on the river undertaken by the writer and his fellow travellers.


  • Garner, C. L. (1914, January 13). On the way to Angkor Wat. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, p.1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    The last part of a three-part travel piece to Cambodia. Includes an ethnographic description of the people enroute to Angkor and details the architecture of Angkor Wat.


  • Notes from Siam. (1927, May 5). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Highlights the proposed changes to better transport and comunication lines to Angkor. Article also highlights the increased accomodation to meet tourist demands.


  • Lost cities of Cambodia. (1927, Dcember 30). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Reports of the “off the beaten track” journey by an American journalist, Robert H. Casey.


  • Local leave at Angkor. (1928, January 6). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Article provides the suggested 10-day journey from Singapore to Angkor by a Mr. C. de Sanit Ceran and was estimated to cost no more than $500 for two persons.


  • Winifred ponder Angkor Wat. (1935, November 25). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    This article reports on the new book by Miss Winifred Ponder titled “Cambodian Glory” and comments on the “unsualy description” of Angkor.


  • Allen, M. (1951, March 25). A masterpiece that survived the jungle. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Allen’s article recounts the “discovery” of Angkor by Henri Mouhot in 1861.


  • Truth behind the mystery of ancient Angkor. (1954, July 3). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    A Straits Times feature article on unravelling the mystery of the history of Angkor that lay in ruins in the jungles of Cambodia.


  • Peterson, I. (1971, February 25). Trying to save a nation’s heritage. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Article highlights the work of Chea Yhey Seng, the national museum’s curator and archaelogist left in Cambodia after the departure of the French at the time. It reports Seng’s work to safeguard the treasures and statues from war.



  • Danois, J. (1980, March 24). Smiling ruins of Angkor Wat. The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
    Article traces Danois’ visit to Angkor Wat, guided by curator of the exhibition Angkor: Bayon, Mr Pich Keo.


Journal and Periodical Articles (Online)

(listed in alphabetical order)

  • Boers, R. (2002). Wondrous Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Digging Stick, 19(2), pp. 13-14. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCO Art & Architecture Source.
    The writer describes some of the spectacular archaeological sights seen during an Archaeological Society trip to Angkor in Cambodia.


  • Brotherson, D. (2015). The fortification of Angkor Wat. Antiquity, 89(348), pp. 1456-1472. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from Proquest.
    The fortification of Angkor Wat is analysed through the holes in the masonry and structural changes to the substantial walls. It demonstrates how wooden structures with a defensive role were built to protect the site sometime between the late thirteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Brotherson’s investigations reveal how Angkor Wat may have made its last attempt at defence.


  • Clément, E. (2002). The looting of Angkor: Keeping up the pressure. Museum International, 54(1/2), pp. 138-143. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCO Art & Architecture Source.
    A campaign launched by the Cambodian authorities and UNESCO to prevent the looting of the site of Angkor are discussed. Emergency measures have included reinforcing security at the Angkor Conservation Office, raising public awareness and alerting the international community. The successes of the campaign are discussed in this article.


  • Durand, S. (2002). Angkor: a decade of tourist development after a decade of heritage rescue? Museum International, 54(1/2), pp. 131-137. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCO Art & Architecture Source.
    Durand provides critical commentary on Angkor Wat as a cultural tourism destination. Highlighted in this essay are the tourist planning strategies such as crowd control.


  • Evans, D., & Fletcher, R. (2015). The landscape of Angkor Wat redefined. Antiquity, 89(348), pp. 1402-1419. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCO Art & Architecture Source.
    Recently obtained LiDAR data have transformed understanding of the Angkor Wat complex, enabling archaeologists to map terrain usually obscured by dense and protected vegetation. The results showed that the complex is much more extensive than previously thought and revealed a hidden structure.


  • Falser, M. (2012). The first plaster casts of Angkor for the French métropole: From the Mekong Mission 1866-1868, and the Universal Exhibition of 1867, to the Musée khmer of 1874. Bulletin De L’École Française D’Extrême-Orient, 99, pp. 49-92. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from JSTOR.
    Falser discusses the Angkor Wat and its significance within the context and narrative of the French colonial empire, focusing on the ‘translation’ process that occurred between Asia and Europe at that time.


  • Fleming, S. (1985). Science Scope: The City of Angkor Wat: A royal observatory on life? Archaeology, 38(1), pp. 62-72. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from JSTOR.
    In this article, Fleming discusses the subtle religious and cosmological powers of Angkor Wat, beyond a mere ostentatious expression of power by the King.


  • French, L. (1999). Hierarchies of Value at Angkor Wat. Ethnos: Journal Of Anthropology, 64(2), pp. 170-191. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier.
    French’s essay explores the different systems of classification theories of values that have been attributed to the temples at different times. Focusing on the commodification of and traffic in temple sculpture, French discusses these occurrences in relation to a particular way of classifying and evaluating temples.


  • Galvin, R. (2001). The temple and its poem: Deciphering Angkor Wat. Humanities, 22(5), p. 20. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier.
    A brief article on the Angkor Wat temple and the 16th century poem inscribed on its walls. The poem is thought to be one of the earliest original literary work in Khmer.


  • Leisen, H. (2002). Contour Scaling: The disfiguring disease of Angkor Wat reliefs. Museum International, 54(1/2), pp. 85-92. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier.
    Leisen discusses the causes and state of deterioration of the bas relief of Angkor Wat. He also details the conservation processes and the considerations for the type of conservation work to be done.


  • Monroe, J. W. (1995). Angkor Wat: A case study in the legal problems of international cultural resource management. Journal Of Arts Management, Law & Society, 24(4), p. 277. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier.
    In this article, Monroe explores the problems of protecting Angkor Wat’s relics from theft, destruction by conservationists and reliance on foreign organisation to protect the site.


  • Sonnemann, T. F., O’Reilly, D., Rachna, C., Fletcher, R., & Pottier, C. (2015). The buried ‘towers’ of Angkor Wat. Antiquity, 89(348), pp. 1420-1438. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from ProQuest.
    Recent survey using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), coupled with targeted excavation, reveals a more complex picture of earlier towers that were partially demolished. This essay explores the implications on what we know of the Khmer civilisation and its ritualistic practices.


  • Stark, M. T., Evans, D., Rachna, C., Piphal, H., & Carter, A. (2015). Residential patterning at Angkor Wat. Antiquity, 89(348), pp. 1439-1455. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from ProQuest.
    Results of a LiDAR survey an excavation have uncovered evidence of residential spaces within the rectangular enclosure surrounding the temple. This paper posits that this challenges our traditional understanding of the social hierarchy of the community and the temple may not have been exclusive to only the wealthy or priestly elite.


  • Stencel, R., Gifford, F., & Morón, E. (1976). Astronomy and cosmology at Angkor Wat. Science, 193(4250), pp. 281-287. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from JSTOR.
    This paper discusses how the measurements of the temple are related to practical astronomy and religious symbolism. Its measurements contains calendrical, historical and mythological data while its architecture has built-in positions for lunar and solar observation.


  • Tan, N. H., Sokrithy, I., Than, H., & Chan, K. (2014). The hidden paintings of Angkor Wat. Antiquity, 88(340), pp. 549-565. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from ProQuest.
    An essay analysing a new series of images consisting of boats, animals, deities and buildings, believed to be part of a specific phase of the temple’s history in 16th century when it was converted from a Vishnavaite Hindu use to Theravada Buddhist site.


  • Vann, M. (2002). Management of the Angkor site: national emblem and world heritage site. Museum International, 54(1/2), pp. 110-116. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier.
    Vann provides a brief overview of the processes leading up to Angkor Wat’s inscription as a World Heritage site and proceeds with an examination of plans for protecting the site.





















(listed in alphabetical order)

  • Artcommune Gallery. (2016, June). Nostalgic chronicles: Ten Men Art Group. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Artcommune Gallery website:
    Written for the commemorative exhibition Nostalgic Chronicles: Ten Men Art Group, it includes a brief analysis of Chen Cheng Mei’s artwork Angkor Wat (1965) from the group’s visit to Cambodia.


  • Artsy. (2017). Ong Kim Seng. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Artsy website:
    This is an online repository of color images of artworks by local artist Ong Kim Seng. Includes an undated image of the painting Angkor Wat Cambodia.


  • Boyle, D. (2017, April 23). Virtual Angkor Wat and other time travel trips coming to a VR headset near you soon. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from ABC website:
    A news report on an exhibition of a “Virtual Angkor” at Monash University’s Hargrave-Andrew library.


  • Choi, C. Q. (2012, January 2). Drought led to demise of ancient city of Angkor. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Live Science website:
    Highlighting the findings from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Choi reports on the role of climate variations and its impact on the ancient city.


  • Covington, R. (2004, February). Rescuing Angkor. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Smithsonian magazine website:
    In this article, Covington provides a brief history of the temples of Angkor and the challenges of conserving the sites.


  • Dockterman, E. (2014, May 30). Over 200 paintings discovered in Cambodia’s Angkor Wat. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Time Inc. website:
    Reports on researcher Noel Hidalgo Tan’s investigation of red and black pigment on the walls that led to the discovery of 200 “hidden” paintings.


  • Hammer, J. (2016, April). The lost city of Cambodia. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Smithsonian magazine website:
    On a plateau situated northeast of Siem Reap, archaeologists have rediscovered the remains of an invisible kingdom that may have been the template for Angkor Wat. Surveys and excavations reveal a sprawling network of temples, palaces, ordinary dwellings and waterworks infrastructure.


  • Hirst, K. K. (2017, February 15). Khmer empire water management system. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Thoughtco website:
    A brief research article on the water systems used by Angkor civilisation to cope with changing water sources and quantities.


  • History Teachers’ Association of Australia. (2013). Comparative timeline of Khmer Empire and Europe. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Education Services Australia Ltd website:
    This comparative timeline created by the History Teachers’ Association of Australia places significant Khmer events and buildings alongside those in Europe.


  • Jarus, O. (2014, October 8). Angkor Wat: History of ancient temple. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Live Science wehbsite:
    Jarus provides an overview of the history of Angkor Wat in this article, covering architectural interests, historical context of Suryavarman II and construction techniques.


  • Kak, S. (2008, February 2). The solar numbers in Angkor Wat. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from The Internet Archive website:
    This paper analyses Angkor Wat’s solar significance in its architecture within the context of Shatapatha (or Satapatha) astronomy.


  • Lovgren, S. (2017, April 5). Angkor Wat’s collapse from climate change has lessons for today. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from National Geographic website:
    Focusing on how water built and destroyed Angkor, this article draws lessons on mankind’s relationship with climate change.


  • Monash University. (2017). Visualising Angkor. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Monash University website:
    The project aims to create a comprehensive virtual reconstruction of Angkor and embark on an immersive analytic study of the complex. Drawing from a wide array of source such as archaeological and art historical surveys, the team created 3D visualisations and interactive scenes.


  • National Museum of Cambodia. (2013). Khmer art history. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from National Museum of Cambodia website:
    A brief introduction to Khmer Art, which includes periods and styles, as well as basic information to the monuments in Cambodia.


  • Rod-Ari, M. (2015, August 9). Angkor Wat. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from Smarthistory website:
    A informative introduction to the history of Angkor Wat, bas relief carvings as well as its architecture as a ‘temple mountain’.


  • UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (2013, December 20). Angkor: Managing success. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from
    UNESCO World Heritage Centre website:
    Article highlights the architectural maintenance and restoration work as part of managing the massive monument in the face of rising visitorship and pressures from the local population.


  • UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (n.d.). Angkor. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from UNESCO World Heritage Centre website:
    Provides detailed information on Angkor and includes images, state of conservation reports and videos.


  • UNESCO. (2013). 20 years of international cooperation for conservation and sustainable development. Retrieved May 30, 2017 from UNESCO World Heritage Centre website:
    This was published in conjunction with the exhibition “1993-2013, 20 years of the ICC-Angkor”, designed for the 20th anniversary of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor). Included are the projects and programmes conducted for the conservation of Angkor Wat.


  • University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries. (n.d.). Images of Angkor Wat. Retrieved from University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries website:
    This is a digitised collection of 120 photos of Siem Reap in 1954. These were taken by Miss Margaret Parx Hays while she was stationed in Manila as a Consul of the American State Department.


  • Wiener, J. (2013, July 16). Reconstructing Angkor Wat through fiction. Retrieved from Ancient History et cetera website:
    An article by James Wiener, detailing the interview with John Burgess on his historical novel, A Woman of Angkor, set in the 12th century golden age of Cambodia’s Angkor civilization.



(listed in alphabetical order)

  • AP Archive. (2015, Jul 21). USA: New radar images of Cambodia’s Angkor region unveiled. [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:

  • Channel NewsAsia. (2017, Jan 23). Tourists ‘will still come’ to Angkor Wat despite price increase. [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:

  • National Geographic. (2008, May 12). Lost city of Angkor Wat – lost temples. [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:

  • Smithsonian Channel. (2015, May 7). How is Angkor Wat still standing today? [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:

  • Smithsonian Channel. (2014, Dec 11). How LIDAR scans reveal Angkor’s hidden city. [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:

  • Smithsonian Channel. (2013, Jan 23). The longest bas relief in the world. [Video file] Retrieved June 1, 2017 from:


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Nadia Ramli


The information in this resource guide is valid as at June 2017 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history on the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

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Written by Nadia Ramli